Thucydides wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War. It’s a very long book going over the war between the Athens and its allies, & Sparta and its allies. It’s very detailed & some consider it the first really well written history book. Herodotus’s The Histories was obviously somewhat of a model forContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [114-122] – Foundation of the Athenian Empire The Greeks had left Mycale for the Hellespont but winds forced them to Lectum & then on to Hellespont. When they arrived, they found the bridge had already been destroyed. The Spartans wanted to go homeContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [90-113] – Liberation of Asia Minor On the same day as the Battle of Plataea, the Persians lost a battle at Mycale in Ionia. The Greek fleet was still in Delos & its admiral Leotychides received a messenger from Samos in secret. TheyContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [1-89] – Battle of Plataea Once Alexander told Mardonius the Athenians’ reply, he started moving his army from Thessaly to Athens. He forced those cities between to supply him with troops. The Thessalians encouraged the Persians to attack more & more. When theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [97-144] – Winter Xerxes saw how badly his side lost. He played through several scenarios in his mind & became determined to leave Greece. He set up movements of the troops that made it look like he was going to go to battleContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [40-96] – Naval Battle off Salamis The Greek fleet left Artemisium & went to Salamis, & dropped anchor. The Athenians asked for this because they wanted to evacuate their children to Salamis with the Persian army threatening Attica. It seemed each region ofContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [1-39] – Naval Battle off Artemisium The Greeks also made naval moves. There were 127 Athenian ships, 40 Corinthian, 20 MEgarian, 20 Chalcidean, 18 Eginetan, 12 Sicyonian, 10 Spartan, 8 Epidaurian, 7 Eretrian, 5 Troezenian, 2 Styrean, 4 Cean & 7 Locrian. ThisContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [138-239] – Battle of Thermopylae This expedition against Athens threatened all of Greece. While they all knew it was coming, they didn’t see it in the same way. Some submitted to Persia thinking they wouldn’t get hurt. Others refused to comply. These feltContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [56-137] – Persians Cross into Europe Once the 7 process of crossing over into Europe was over, Xerxes looked at his army. A Hellespontian looked at it & said: “Jove, you’ve taken on the form of a Persian named Xerxes to lead theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [1-55] – Persian Preparations When Darius heard of the news of the Battle of Marathon, he became enraged & even more determined to lead an army against Greece. He sent messengers around throughout the empire that fresh levies would be raised to fightContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 6, “Erato” [94-140] – Battle of Marathon While the Eginetans & Athenians were fighting, Darius made plans of his own. He’d had his servant remind him about the Athenians, & the Pisistratidae were urging him to do something. He saw it all a good excuseContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 6, “Erato” [43-93] – Affairs in Greece Next year Darius sent down his new son-in-law, Mardonius, with a large army to Cilicia. He took the army & marched to the Hellespont & the navy sailed there on its own. Mardonius destroyed Ionian tyrants & replacedContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 6, “Erato” [1-42] – End of the Ionian Revolt Histiaeus was given permission to go to Sardis. Once he arrived, he spoke with governor Artaphernes about the Ionian rebellion. Histiaeus said he had no idea why it had happened but wanted to get to theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 4, “Melpomene” [145-205] – Greeks in Cyrene become Subjects of the Persian Empire 145. Around this time, an expedition was about to be led into Libya on a long distant pretext. The descendants of the Argonauts were driven from Lemnos by the Pelasgi & hadContinue Reading

Roger Williams – The Bloody Tenet, 1644 The blood of 100000 Catholics & Protestants has been spilled in the Wars of Religion in Europe – all for their religious beliefs & consciences. This is not something Jesus wanted. The Bible clearly comes out against all of this violence over religion.Continue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia”: Coups of the Magians & Darius (61-119, 126-141, 150-160) 61. Cambyes remained in Egypt. At this time, 2 Magi brothers revolted against him. One was a comptroller of his household. They knew Smerdis was dead but most Persians did not. The other brotherContinue Reading

39. While Cambyses was in Egypt, Spartans sent a force to Samos against Polycrates. Polycrates had conquered the island with his 2 brothers but later he killed one & sent the other into exile. Polycrates made with Amasis & he became more powerful. The whole Greek world took notice. HisContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia” (1-38) Cambyses, king of Persia, decided to go to war with the Egyptians. The reason was because an Egyptian upset with his king, Amasis, because he felt slighted by him for sending him to Persia to be Cyrus’s eye doctor. To get even,Continue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 5 – The March to Paphlagonia Chapter 1 – Chirisophus Goes to Get Ships They had a meeting amongst the leaders where a few of them spoke Leon of Thurii: I know for myself & my guys, we’re tired of packingContinue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 4 – The March to the Sea Chapter 1 – The Entry into Kurdestan There was enough of the night left to cross the plain unnoticed from the summit. There, they had to pass through villages of the Carduchi, who hadContinue Reading