Of Adversity – Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) In a speech, Seneca said – the good things which belong to prosperity are to be wished but the good things that belong to adversity are to be admired If miracles are command over nature, they definitely appear in adversity In another speech,Continue Reading

“Of Beauty” by Francis Bacon (1561–1626) Virtue looks best in a nice body, not too delicate, but dignified in presence rather than aspect Virtue is more in practice than in great spirit There are many famous men held in high regard but also very good-looking: Augustus, Philip le Bel, EdwardContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 9” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Relationships between unequals get compensated in one way or another to preserve the relationship Craftsmen receive money for their work in proportion to its value to the buyer & seller Lovers complain that love isn’t returned equally or that the amountContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 8” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Friendship is an indispensable requirement for life Rich & powerful men need them for an outlet for beneficence to safeguard prosperity It’s poor men’s only resource The young need it to stop themselves from doing stupid things The old need itContinue Reading

  “Ethics Book 7” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Let’s talk about 3 moral character types to avoid & their opposites AVOID: Vice, unrestraint & bestiality/brutality WANT: Virtue, restraint & heroic/divine goodness It’s beyond human quality to make a man godlike in virtue Virtue doesn’t exist in gods becauseContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 6” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 It’s right to choose the mean & avoid excess & deficiency With all virtues, there’s a mark to aim for & this requires conformity with the right principle [It’s nothing new to say that] We know the truth of that statementContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 5” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Need to find the mean between Justice & Injustice Definition – moral disposition that renders men able to do just thing & to want just things (Injustice is the opposite) Not the same as with Science where there are always oppositesContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 4” by Aristotle (349 BC)   Ch. 1 Liberality – in giving & getting wealth, especially giving The virtue is the mean between prodigality & meanness Prodigality – unrestrained, squandering of money usually on debauchery Combination of vices but particularly in wasting one’s own substance – ruining yourselfContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 3” by Aristotle (349 BC)   Ch. 1 Virtue refers to emotion & action Since praise & blame are only given for voluntary actions, what are they? What are involuntary actions? Either out of compulsion or ignorance Must originate outside of the agent & he must contribute nothingContinue Reading

“Ethics Book 2” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Virtue has 2 kinds: intellectual & moral Intellectual – created & increased by instructed which requires time & experience Moral & Ethical – product of habit [ethos] no moral virtues are given at birth by nature – no natural property canContinue Reading

“Meno” by Plato Meno was a young, rich nobleman from Thessaly Anytos was an Athenian politician, later accuser at Socrates’s trial   Meno – Can virtue be taught? Does it come by practice? If neither, do you get it through nature or another way? Socrates – I’ve always thought peopleContinue Reading

David Hume – Of the Study of History Hume advises women of the 1700s to study history Women tended to eschew history & the like for fiction Gives a copy of Plutarch’s Parallel Lives to a girl he likes Tells her that it’s fiction She likes it at first untilContinue Reading

Montaigne is asked by Madame Diane de Foix, on what the best way of educating a child is. He starts off saying he doesn’t know and then goes on for many pages on the best sort of education. It’s very difficult to read into what a child’s natural talents areContinue Reading