“On Liberty” (1859), Chapter 4: Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individuals, by John Stuart Mill What is the limit of sovereignty of an individual over himself? Where does the authority begin? Individuality should involve the arena of life where the individual is mostly concerned. Society
“On Liberty” (1859), Chapter 1: Introduction, by John Stuart Mill Civil or Social liberty – nature of limits of power legitimately exercised over the individual’s will Struggle between liberty & authority in the past was between subjects & the government. Liberty was meant as protection against tyranny from the government.
Federalist No. 71 – Alexander Hamilton The President’s term should be four years. Some think that it’s too long and he could amass power. In this span, he has time to counteract temporary passions or influences of factions in the public and their representatives. His duty is to protect the
Federalist No. 70 – Alexander Hamilton A single executive is necessary for accountability, “executive energy” and defense against legislative encroachment on his power. One is enough to ensure secrecy, fewer fights and allowing decisions to be made quickly. Congress will have time to deliberate and listen to open discussion to
Federalist No. 68 – Alexander Hamilton The Electoral College allows the sense of the people playing a role in selecting the President without mayhem and disorder. A direct election would bring us chaos and instability. Electors in the Electoral College would be unbiased since they don’t hold office. This ensures
Federalist No. 51 – James Madison Explains how the structure of government has an effect on liberty. Each branch should be mostly independent – no branch should have too much power in selecting members of the other branches. Easy to make executive and legislative branches elected positions but it’s difficult for
Federalist No. 47 – James Madison Detractors say that the Constitution doesn’t divide the powers up enough so that they’re not wholly independent and that they are unevenly distributed. Important to focus on separation of powers. If too much power is given to one branch, it’s tyrannical but how much
Federalist No. 31 – Alexander Hamilton The federal government needs to tax because it needs money to perform its functions Needs enough power to fulfill its responsibilities Can’t predict future problems of the government and shouldn’t be constrained Needs money to do those things and it needs to be able
Federalist No. 15 – Alexander Hamilton The Confederation didn’t preserve peace and happiness. And will probably lead to anarchy, riots, large debts, territories near foreign powers, no military, no money, no commerce, no foreign respect and falling prospects. The Confederation needed a stronger central government but couldn’t do so without
Federalist No. 10 – James Madison The best argument for the Constitution is that it controls damage and chaos of factions – people have banded together to promote and protect special economic and political interests. These often work against the public’s interest. The Articles of Confederation and strong, independent minded
Federalist No. 9 – Alexander Hamilton A strong union will act as a defense barrier against invasion and domestic problems. This will come from a system of checks and balances between the different branches of government. Compare the branches of government to planets orbiting the sun – in a single
Federalist No. 8 – Alexander Hamilton The problem with in-fighting is bigger than foreign attack The US has no civil defense set up – no castles, no city walls, no militia, etc. Large states could overrun their smaller neighbors If disunited, standing armies would be necessary and they are costly
Federalist No. 7 – Alexander Hamilton If states aren’t united, they will be more likely to go to war with other countries including neighbors Border disputes, commercial competition, public debt may lead states to fight each other. This will make us look weak and disunited and either be tempted by
Federalist No. 6 – Alexander Hamilton Commercial clashes have caused nations to be unfriendly with other nations Wars happen all the time based on this, religion and border disputes The British have almost always been at war for these reasons Popular wars often based on commerce between 2 parties are
Federalist No. 5 – John Jay If our country descended into 3 or 4 countries, there’d be many border disputes and many other problems. Large differences would occur and might lead to a war. 3 or 4 nations would have different commercial interests and different alliances with foreign countries and
Federalist No. 4 – John Jay One government uniting the states will deter France, Spain and Britain from interfering in our lives. The US is growing its economy and that may spark tensions between the US and other economic powers. A single government can defend better than 13 individual states.