Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 5, Chapter 17 – Sixteenth Year of the War—The Melian Conference—Fate of Melos The next summer, Alcibiades sailed with 20 ships to Argos to take suspected people from the pro-Spartan oligarchs (300 of them). The Athenians also made an expedition against theContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 5, Chapter 16 – Feeling against Sparta in Peloponnese—League of the Mantineans, Eleans, Argives, and Athenians—Battle of Mantinea and breaking up of the League The alliance between Athens & Sparta was being disturbed by Corinth & cities in the Peloponnese, especially byContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 5, Chapter 15 – Tenth Year of the War—Death of Cleon and Brasidas—Peace of Nicias The truce lasted until after the Pythian Games. The Athenians expelled the Delians from Delos thinking they’d been polluted by an old offense – likely due toContinue Reading

Aristotle – Politics Book 6 Ch. 1 We need to discuss mods of organization & advantages to each form of government. We also need to consider the possible combinations. Some make democracies more oligarchical & some make oligarchies more democratic. The combinations will be in deliberation, election of officers &Continue Reading

Aristotle – Politics, Book 5 Ch. 1 Let’s look at the causes of revolution, their nature, what they devolve into & how to preserve – that may change based on the form of government. Democracy arises from the idea that those who are equal are equal in everything. Those whoContinue Reading

Aristotle – Politics, Book 3 Ch. 1 All arts & sciences that encompass an entire subject don’t come into being in fragments. These arts & sciences consider the entirety of the field. g. In gymnastics, they think not only about different types of training for different bodies but what theContinue Reading

Aristotle – Politics, Book 3 Ch. 1 What is a state? Some say that a state does something but others say that it’s the tyrant or an oligarchy doing it. The legislator or statesman is entirely concerned with the state. The state is a composite of the citizens who composeContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, Chapter 8 – Third Year of the War—Investment of Plataea—Naval Victories of Phormio—Thracian Irruption into Macedonia under Sitacles The next year, the Peloponnesians invaded Plataea instead of Attica. Archidamus camped the army in the area & was about to destroy theContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, Chapter 7 – Second Year of the War—The Plague of Athens—Position and Policy of Pericles—Fall of Potidaea The next summer, the Spartans & allies sent 2/3 of their forces to invade Attica under Archidamus. They laid waste to the countryside. JustContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 2, Chapter 6 – Beginning of the Peloponnesian War—First Invasion of Attica—Funeral Oration of Pericles The war began. All talking between the 2 sides happened through heralds. Hostilities began without intermission. The 30 year truce lasted 14 years. 6 months after theContinue Reading

Plato – Statesman Theodorus wants the Eleatic Stranger to show how the Statesman, Philosopher & Sophist are all different. Socrates allows a young Socrates “to be the interlocutor”. They start off saying that the sciences should be divided into subcategories. The sciences are divided between action-based knowledge (handicrafts, etc.) &Continue Reading

Pausanias, betrayer of Greece  Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 5 – Second Congress at Lacedaemon – Preparations for War and Diplomatic Skirmishes – Cylon – Pausanias – Themistocles A few years after this, the affairs of Corcyra & Potidaea served as a pretext for war.Continue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 4 – From the End of the Persian to the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War – The Progress from Supremacy to Empire Athens’s power grew like this… After the Persians went home, defeat at sea & on land, the SpartanContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 3 – Congress of the Peloponnesian Confederacy at Lacedaemon The Athenians & Peloponnesians had a lot of complaints against one another. Corinth complained her colony under siege by the Athenians. The Athenians complained that the Peloponnesians were inciting revolts inContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 2 – Causes of the War – The Affair of Epidamnus – The Affair of Potidaea Epidamnus is at the entrance of the Ionic Gulf & its neighbors are the Taulantians, an Illyrian people. It was originally a colony ofContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 1 – The State of Greece from the earliest Times to the Commencement of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides began writing about the war as soon as it started, thinking people would want to know the facts. The war had allContinue Reading

Aristotle – On Interpretation We need to understand terms like “noun” & “verb” then “negation”, “affirmation”, preposition” & “sentence”. Spoken words are symbols of mental experiences & written words are symbols of spoken words. We don’t all have the same writing or the same sounds but our mental experiences areContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [114-122] – Foundation of the Athenian Empire The Greeks had left Mycale for the Hellespont but winds forced them to Lectum & then on to Hellespont. When they arrived, they found the bridge had already been destroyed. The Spartans wanted to go homeContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [90-113] – Liberation of Asia Minor On the same day as the Battle of Plataea, the Persians lost a battle at Mycale in Ionia. The Greek fleet was still in Delos & its admiral Leotychides received a messenger from Samos in secret. TheyContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [1-89] – Battle of Plataea Once Alexander told Mardonius the Athenians’ reply, he started moving his army from Thessaly to Athens. He forced those cities between to supply him with troops. The Thessalians encouraged the Persians to attack more & more. When theContinue Reading