“The American Crisis 13” by Thomas Paine (April 1783)

“The American Crisis 13” by Thomas Paine (April 1783) “The times that tried men’s souls, are over and the greatest and completest revolution the world ever knew, gloriously and happily accomplished.” It’s very strange to go from the danger & tumult of war to the safety & tranquility of peace Let’s reflect on the transition… Read more “The American Crisis 13” by Thomas Paine (April 1783)

“Common Sense” by Thomas Paine (1776)

“Common Sense” by Thomas Paine (1776) Chapter 1 – Of the origin and design of government in general, with concise remarks on the English Constitution Society produced by our wants, promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections. encourages intercourse, a patron & a blessing Government produced by wickedness, promotes our happiness negatively by restraining… Read more “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine (1776)

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VIII – Persia v. Ionians and Aeolians [141-176]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VIII – Persia v. Ionians and Aeolians [141-170] After they conquered Lydia, the Persians received ambassadors from the Ionians and Aeolians asking to be lieges just as they had been with Croesus. He responded that they hadn’t submitted before the war with Lydia and were only fence-sitters… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VIII – Persia v. Ionians and Aeolians [141-176]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VI – Harpagus Convinces Cyrus to Take Over Media [123-130]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VI – Harpagus Convinces Cyrus to Take Over Media [123-130] When Cyrus had grown up, Harpagus, looking for revenge, visited him to ask for help. He convinced Median nobles that Astyages was cruel and needed to go. But the road to Persia was guided. He put a… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VI – Harpagus Convinces Cyrus to Take Over Media [123-130]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” V – Astyages & Cyrus [107-122]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” V – Astyages & Cyrus [107-122] A – Astyages has a Dream [107-113] Astyages was next on the throne. He had a dream about his daughter, Mandané, where a flood of water flowed from her that drowned the capital and all of Asia. This scared him so… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” V – Astyages & Cyrus [107-122]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” IV – Media Starts [95-106]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” IV – Media Starts [95-106] A – Beginnings of Persia were in the Medes [95-102] On to Cyrus and the Persians… the Assyrians were in Upper Asia for 520 years, when Medes revolted and got their freedom. They had democracies for a short while but turned to… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” IV – Media Starts [95-106]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” III – Croesus Turns Toward Persia [71-94]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” III – Croesus Turns Toward Persia [71-94] A – Croesus Looks to Expand [71-77] Croesus read the Oracle’s words wrongly and led armies into Cappadocia (Syria), expecting to defeat Persia. A Lydian man, Sandania, told Croesus – You’re about to fight people who eat only what they… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” III – Croesus Turns Toward Persia [71-94]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” – II – Croesus, Cyrus & the State of Affairs in Greece [45-70]

  The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” II – Croesus, Cyrus & the State of Affairs in Greece [46-70] A – Croesus wonders about Cyrus [46-56] 2 years after Atys’s death, Croesus learned that Cyrus was growing in power. He wondered what he could do about it and sent messengers to the Oracles… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” – II – Croesus, Cyrus & the State of Affairs in Greece [45-70]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” – I – Trojan War, Candaules & Gyges and Early Croesus Years [1-45]

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” I – Trojan War, Candaules & Gyges and Early Croesus Years [1-45] A – Kidnappings and War [1-5] Kidnappings of Io, Medea, Europé and Helen – The Phoenicians were originally from near the Indian Ocean but moved to the Mediterranean Sea. They traded with the Greeks, especially… Read more The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” – I – Trojan War, Candaules & Gyges and Early Croesus Years [1-45]