“Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” or “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals” by Immanuel Kant (1785) – Part 1

“Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” or “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals” by Immanuel Kant (1785) – Part 1 Preface Ancient Greek Philosophy had 3 sciences: Physics, Ethics & Logic. All knowledge is either material or formal Material: considers some object. Material philosophy has to do with determinate objects & the laws they’re… Read more “Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” or “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals” by Immanuel Kant (1785) – Part 1

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 9-12

VIII. The Fundamentals Of The Christian Religion 556 – Christianity looks to establish a great religion For this, man need it to explain his nature & that of the world around him Many revile it because they don’t understand it God is great, powerful & eternal but removed from Man – Deism Christianity relies on… Read more “Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 9-12

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 6-7

VI. The Philosophers 374 – What surprises me is that people aren’t surprised by their own weakness They are so serious & they follow their life’s path out of certainty of what reason & justice are They’re constantly deceived & they think it’s their own fault Many people glorify skeptics [which they ought to be… Read more “Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 6-7

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 2-5

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) I. Thoughts On Mind And On Style II. The Misery Of Man Without God 72 – Man’s Disproportion This is where innate knowledge leads us If not, there’s no truth in man If so, he’ll find a cause of humiliation Man should focus on nature & not small & unimportant… Read more “Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 2-5

“The Art of Life” by Walter Horatio Pater (1839-1894)

“The Art of Life” by Walter Horatio Pater (1839-1894) We tend to think of things & principles as inconstant modes & fashions Let’s examine physical life… Look at the floods of summer rain We don’t see anything but a combination of elements from the periodic table They’re in our bodies as well as outside of… Read more “The Art of Life” by Walter Horatio Pater (1839-1894)

“Meditations” by Marcus Aurelius (170-180 AD)

“Meditations” by Marcus Aurelius (170-180 AD)   Book I: a list of “Thank yous” or sources of his wisdom: Grandfather (Verus): morals and even temper Biological father (Annius Verus): modesty and manly character Mother: piety and beneficence abstinence from evil deeds and thoughts simplicity of life, to live unlike most “rich” Great-grandfather: not to go… Read more “Meditations” by Marcus Aurelius (170-180 AD)

“Lucretius” by George Santayana (1910)

“Lucretius” by George Santayana (1910) We don’t know much about Lucretius other than what St. Jerome said about him He’d been given a love potion & went nuts. In between the psychotic episodes, he wrote the poem & it was edited by Cicero. At the age of 44, he killed himself George doesn’t trust an… Read more “Lucretius” by George Santayana (1910)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 4 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 4 by Lucretius (1st Century BC) 1-25 I’m just trying to experience all there is in the world All in order to teach others, to remove the bonds of religion & brace the reader for unpleasant truths that will cause him to recoil & reject them 26-107 Pictures of… Read more “On the Nature of Things” Book 4 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 3 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 3 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)   1-30 Lucretius is following in Epicurus;s footsteps even many years later, in another country, in another language He feels the desire to imitate Epicurus’s work & help spread his word around the world He enjoys reading & re-reading all Epicurus’s work because… Read more “On the Nature of Things” Book 3 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 2 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 2 by Lucretius (1st Century BC) 1-62 It’s comforting to watch another ship fight the sea & wind while yours is calm, not because you rejoice in others’ struggles but because it reminds you of how nice it is to be free from struggle yourself It reminds you that… Read more “On the Nature of Things” Book 2 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 1 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“On the Nature of Things” Book 1 by Lucretius (1st Century BC) 1-49 Prays to Venus, who’s able to affect the seas, fertility of the land, the rising & setting of the sun, influence on all nature & life Puts love into all things Asks her to appease Mars & lessen the effects on war… Read more “On the Nature of Things” Book 1 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)

“Ethics Book 10” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 10” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Let’s discuss pleasure Very important in education to steer between pleasure & pain to enjoy what we ought to & hate what we ought to ensure one’s virtue of character Some say pleasure’s good & some say it’s bad, or that even though it might be… Read more “Ethics Book 10” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 9” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 9” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Relationships between unequals get compensated in one way or another to preserve the relationship Craftsmen receive money for their work in proportion to its value to the buyer & seller Lovers complain that love isn’t returned equally or that the amount of love isn’t the same… Read more “Ethics Book 9” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 8” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 8” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Friendship is an indispensable requirement for life Rich & powerful men need them for an outlet for beneficence to safeguard prosperity It’s poor men’s only resource The young need it to stop themselves from doing stupid things The old need it to supplement their failing abilities… Read more “Ethics Book 8” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 7” by Aristotle (349 BC)

  “Ethics Book 7” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Let’s talk about 3 moral character types to avoid & their opposites AVOID: Vice, unrestraint & bestiality/brutality WANT: Virtue, restraint & heroic/divine goodness It’s beyond human quality to make a man godlike in virtue Virtue doesn’t exist in gods because it’s too low for them… Read more “Ethics Book 7” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 6” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 6” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 It’s right to choose the mean & avoid excess & deficiency With all virtues, there’s a mark to aim for & this requires conformity with the right principle [It’s nothing new to say that] We know the truth of that statement but we have to define… Read more “Ethics Book 6” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 5” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 5” by Aristotle (349 BC) Ch. 1 Need to find the mean between Justice & Injustice Definition – moral disposition that renders men able to do just thing & to want just things (Injustice is the opposite) Not the same as with Science where there are always opposites & certain actions lead to… Read more “Ethics Book 5” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 4” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 4” by Aristotle (349 BC)   Ch. 1 Liberality – in giving & getting wealth, especially giving The virtue is the mean between prodigality & meanness Prodigality – unrestrained, squandering of money usually on debauchery Combination of vices but particularly in wasting one’s own substance – ruining yourself by your own agency Riches… Read more “Ethics Book 4” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 3” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“Ethics Book 3” by Aristotle (349 BC)   Ch. 1 Virtue refers to emotion & action Since praise & blame are only given for voluntary actions, what are they? What are involuntary actions? Either out of compulsion or ignorance Must originate outside of the agent & he must contribute nothing to it e.g. Weather causes… Read more “Ethics Book 3” by Aristotle (349 BC)

“A Meditation upon a Broomstick” by Jonathan Swift (1701)

“A Meditation upon a Broomstick” by Jonathan Swift (1701) The broomstick propped up in the corner was once a tree flowing with life Now everyone who touches it does so out of drudgery Supposed to make other things clean & makes itself dirty in the process It’ll either be thrown out or in the fire… Read more “A Meditation upon a Broomstick” by Jonathan Swift (1701)