Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia”: Coups of the Magians & Darius (61-119, 126-141, 150-160) 61. Cambyes remained in Egypt. At this time, 2 Magi brothers revolted against him. One was a comptroller of his household. They knew Smerdis was dead but most Persians did not. The other brotherContinue Reading

39. While Cambyses was in Egypt, Spartans sent a force to Samos against Polycrates. Polycrates had conquered the island with his 2 brothers but later he killed one & sent the other into exile. Polycrates made with Amasis & he became more powerful. The whole Greek world took notice. HisContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia” (1-38) Cambyses, king of Persia, decided to go to war with the Egyptians. The reason was because an Egyptian upset with his king, Amasis, because he felt slighted by him for sending him to Persia to be Cyrus’s eye doctor. To get even,Continue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 7 – Byzantium, Thrace & Asia Minor Chapter 1 – Trouble at Byzantium Pharnabazus sent Spartan admiral Anaxibius to transport the army across the straits to get the army out of his province. They even promised to pay the soldiers XenophonContinue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 6 – The March to the Bosporus Chapter 1 – Xenophon Refuses the Offer of the Supreme Command They lived partly on what they could buy & partly on what they could steal from the natives, the Paphlogonians. The Paphlogonians attackedContinue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 5 – The March to Paphlagonia Chapter 1 – Chirisophus Goes to Get Ships They had a meeting amongst the leaders where a few of them spoke Leon of Thurii: I know for myself & my guys, we’re tired of packingContinue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 4 – The March to the Sea Chapter 1 – The Entry into Kurdestan There was enough of the night left to cross the plain unnoticed from the summit. There, they had to pass through villages of the Carduchi, who hadContinue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 3 – The March to Kurdestan Chapter 1 – Xenophon Takes the Initiative With generals & captains either caught or killed, the Greeks were leaderless & without hope of getting supplies.,1000 miles from home & surrounded by hostile troops & people IfContinue Reading

Anabasis (The Persian Expedition) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 2 – The Greeks are Isolated Chapter 1 – The King’s Messenger The Greek generals met up with no clue where Cyrus was & nobody to tell them. They decided to pack up & move toward where they thought he’d endContinue Reading

The Persian Expedition (Anabasis) by Xenophon (370 BC), Book 1 – The Attempt of Cyrus Chapter 1 – Cyrus Builds Up His Army Darius & Parysatis’s sons (1- Artaxerxes, 2 – Cyrus) Darius was dying & Cyrus had to be sent for. He came with Persian friend, Tissaphernes & Greek underlingContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” X – Cyrus Meets His End Against the Messagetae [201-216] After conquering Babylon made for the Massagetae eastward beyond the River Araxes. The Araxes is about the size of the Danube with fairly large islands. Their inhabitants mostly ate roots and treeContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” IX – Cyrus Moves on Babylon [177-200] A – Background on Babylon [177-187] Cyrus took care of the upper regions himself. He began with the Assyrians. The Assyrians had Babylon, stronger than Nineveh, which had already been taken by the Persians. BabylonContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VIII – Persia v. Ionians and Aeolians [141-170] After they conquered Lydia, the Persians received ambassadors from the Ionians and Aeolians asking to be lieges just as they had been with Croesus. He responded that they hadn’t submitted before the war withContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VII – Persian Culture [131-140] No images of gods, no temples, no altars, all of which seemed silly to them. They didn’t think the gods have the same traits and nature as humans. Many gods they had were given to them fromContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” VI – Harpagus Convinces Cyrus to Take Over Media [123-130] When Cyrus had grown up, Harpagus, looking for revenge, visited him to ask for help. He convinced Median nobles that Astyages was cruel and needed to go. But the road to PersiaContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” V – Astyages & Cyrus [107-122] A – Astyages has a Dream [107-113] Astyages was next on the throne. He had a dream about his daughter, Mandané, where a flood of water flowed from her that drowned the capital and all ofContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” IV – Media Starts [95-106] A – Beginnings of Persia were in the Medes [95-102] On to Cyrus and the Persians… the Assyrians were in Upper Asia for 520 years, when Medes revolted and got their freedom. They had democracies for aContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” III – Croesus Turns Toward Persia [71-94] A – Croesus Looks to Expand [71-77] Croesus read the Oracle’s words wrongly and led armies into Cappadocia (Syria), expecting to defeat Persia. A Lydian man, Sandania, told Croesus – You’re about to fight peopleContinue Reading

  The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” II – Croesus, Cyrus & the State of Affairs in Greece [46-70] A – Croesus wonders about Cyrus [46-56] 2 years after Atys’s death, Croesus learned that Cyrus was growing in power. He wondered what he could do about it andContinue Reading

The Histories by Herodotus – Book I, “Clio” I – Trojan War, Candaules & Gyges and Early Croesus Years [1-45] A – Kidnappings and War [1-5] Kidnappings of Io, Medea, Europé and Helen – The Phoenicians were originally from near the Indian Ocean but moved to the Mediterranean Sea. TheyContinue Reading