Tartuffe by Molière (1664) – Act 1 Scene 1 Madame Pernelle – No one listens to a word, I saw. I can’t stay here any longer. No one can hear anything anyone says. Come one, Flipote. Let’s get out of here… Dorine – But… Madame Pernelle – You’re just anContinue Reading

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 2 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) Part 2 The man who put up a fence around a plot of land & said “this is mine” was the founder of civil society. It should have been ignored but the natural wayContinue Reading

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) Dedication to Geneva I’m glad to be from Geneva & in this discourse I reflect on equality & inequality The best place to live is where: Society is proportionate to human limitations The sovereign & people’sContinue Reading

Pigeons show what they think of the law “The Law” by Frédéric Bastiat (1850) The law has been perverted Not just derailed in its cause but applied to pursue the opposite We have been given a gift from God Life – physical, intellectual & moral He gave us faculties toContinue Reading

“Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen” (1789) The Representatives of France in a National Assembly Because of past ignorance, neglect & contempt of human rights are the cause of public misfortune & corruption of government Trying to make natural & inalienable rights always in the mind of the publicContinue Reading

“Treatise on Arithmetical Triangle” by Blaise Pascal (1654) +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=  1st consequence – In every arithmetical triangle, all the cells of the first row & first column are the same as the generating cell. Each cell in the triangle is equal to the sum of the immediately preceding row & columnContinue Reading

“What Is a Classic?” by Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869) It all depends… if someone I trust recommends it to me, I’ll give it a whirl – all my attention & give my honest opinion The English have been writing essays for non-personal opinions – abstract & moral – should beContinue Reading

Samuel de Champlain – Voyages, 1604 There are many reasons why people go abroad – money, glory or for public benefit – most of this action takes place on the seas The English hired John Cabot The Portuguese hired Gaspar Cortereal The French hired Jacques Cartier The English continued explorationContinue Reading

VIII. The Fundamentals Of The Christian Religion 556 – Christianity looks to establish a great religion For this, man need it to explain his nature & that of the world around him Many revile it because they don’t understand it God is great, powerful & eternal but removed from ManContinue Reading

VI. The Philosophers 374 – What surprises me is that people aren’t surprised by their own weakness They are so serious & they follow their life’s path out of certainty of what reason & justice are They’re constantly deceived & they think it’s their own fault Many people glorify skepticsContinue Reading

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) I. Thoughts On Mind And On Style II. The Misery Of Man Without God 72 – Man’s Disproportion This is where innate knowledge leads us If not, there’s no truth in man If so, he’ll find a cause of humiliation Man should focus on natureContinue Reading

Chapter 8: What Tempers the Tyranny of the Majority in the United States I – Absence of Administrative Centralization 2 types of centralization – government & administrative Only government centralization in the US If directing power had both, there’s be no freedom because it have the right to command, &Continue Reading

Chapter 7: The Omnipotence of the Majority in the United States and Its Effects Democratic government’s essence is absolute sovereignty of the will of the majority Legislature is chose to represent the majority directly for short terms – almost all government power is here Laws weaken the executive to theContinue Reading

Chapter 6: The Real Advantages Derived by American Society From Democratic Government I – The General Tendency of Laws Under the Sway of American Democracy and the Instincts of Those Who Apply Them defects of Democracy are obvious but the benefits are only seen in the long run laws canContinue Reading

Book IV Chapter One: The General Will is Indestructible When an assembly is gathered, all are convened only to consider one will, the common good, which is apparent and only good sense is need to perceive it. This peace, unity and equality are at odds with political subtleties. Honest andContinue Reading

Book III Chapter One: Government in General Free action is based on two causes: Moral – the will that determines the act; and Physical – the power that executes the act. The legislative power is the moral cause based on the general will and is the sovereign. The executive powerContinue Reading

Book II Chapter One: Sovereignty is inalienable The conclusion of Book I was that only the general will can direct the state’s forces based on the reason behind its establishment: the common good. Clashing interests create the necessity for societies but common interests allow them to continue. Society must onlyContinue Reading

Book I Chapter One: Introduction “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” With respect to force, people will obey if they are forced to. Without the chains of obedience or slavery, life would definitely be better. The former master and former slave may continue a relationship basedContinue Reading

“Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne Montaigne is getting older and all he’s got left is to look back at life. He wants to live a comfortable life but wants to be temperate and moderate. This is difficult because comfort requires avoiding pain and that means goingContinue Reading

any That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them – Michel de Montaigne People are often bothered by their views on things, not the things themselves. We choose to see them as good or bad. If that’s so, whyContinue Reading