“Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 8) (1835)

Chapter 8: What Tempers the Tyranny of the Majority in the United States I – Absence of Administrative Centralization 2 types of centralization – government & administrative Only government centralization in the US If directing power had both, there’s be no freedom because it have the right to command, & the faculty & habit to… Read more “Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 8) (1835)

“Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 7)

Chapter 7: The Omnipotence of the Majority in the United States and Its Effects Democratic government’s essence is absolute sovereignty of the will of the majority Legislature is chose to represent the majority directly for short terms – almost all government power is here Laws weaken the executive to the point where it has no… Read more “Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 7)

“Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 6) (1835)

Chapter 6: The Real Advantages Derived by American Society From Democratic Government I – The General Tendency of Laws Under the Sway of American Democracy and the Instincts of Those Who Apply Them defects of Democracy are obvious but the benefits are only seen in the long run laws can be defective & incomplete most… Read more “Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 6) (1835)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book IV (1762)

Book IV Chapter One: The General Will is Indestructible When an assembly is gathered, all are convened only to consider one will, the common good, which is apparent and only good sense is need to perceive it. This peace, unity and equality are at odds with political subtleties. Honest and simple men are difficult to… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book IV (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book III (1762)

Book III Chapter One: Government in General Free action is based on two causes: Moral – the will that determines the act; and Physical – the power that executes the act. The legislative power is the moral cause based on the general will and is the sovereign. The executive power is the physical cause based… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book III (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book II (1762)

Book II Chapter One: Sovereignty is inalienable The conclusion of Book I was that only the general will can direct the state’s forces based on the reason behind its establishment: the common good. Clashing interests create the necessity for societies but common interests allow them to continue. Society must only be governed by common interests.… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book II (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book I (1762)

Book I Chapter One: Introduction “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” With respect to force, people will obey if they are forced to. Without the chains of obedience or slavery, life would definitely be better. The former master and former slave may continue a relationship based on superiority-inferiority but force is… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book I (1762)

“Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne Montaigne is getting older and all he’s got left is to look back at life. He wants to live a comfortable life but wants to be temperate and moderate. This is difficult because comfort requires avoiding pain and that means going toward pleasure, the opposite of… Read more “Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them” – Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

any That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them – Michel de Montaigne People are often bothered by their views on things, not the things themselves. We choose to see them as good or bad. If that’s so, why not choose to see things… Read more “That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them” – Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)