Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 4 – From the End of the Persian to the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War – The Progress from Supremacy to Empire Athens’s power grew like this… After the Persians went home, defeat at sea & on land, the SpartanContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 3 – Congress of the Peloponnesian Confederacy at Lacedaemon The Athenians & Peloponnesians had a lot of complaints against one another. Corinth complained her colony under siege by the Athenians. The Athenians complained that the Peloponnesians were inciting revolts inContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 2 – Causes of the War – The Affair of Epidamnus – The Affair of Potidaea Epidamnus is at the entrance of the Ionic Gulf & its neighbors are the Taulantians, an Illyrian people. It was originally a colony ofContinue Reading

Introductory Essay to Essays on this Blog I’ve decided to start writing essays or thoughts on here. It was my New Year’s Resolution to make a post on this website every day – no matter how large or small. Just seeing the blog entry calendar loaded for the first coupleContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 1 – The State of Greece from the earliest Times to the Commencement of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides began writing about the war as soon as it started, thinking people would want to know the facts. The war had allContinue Reading

Aristotle – On Interpretation We need to understand terms like “noun” & “verb” then “negation”, “affirmation”, preposition” & “sentence”. Spoken words are symbols of mental experiences & written words are symbols of spoken words. We don’t all have the same writing or the same sounds but our mental experiences areContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [114-122] – Foundation of the Athenian Empire The Greeks had left Mycale for the Hellespont but winds forced them to Lectum & then on to Hellespont. When they arrived, they found the bridge had already been destroyed. The Spartans wanted to go homeContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [90-113] – Liberation of Asia Minor On the same day as the Battle of Plataea, the Persians lost a battle at Mycale in Ionia. The Greek fleet was still in Delos & its admiral Leotychides received a messenger from Samos in secret. TheyContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [1-89] – Battle of Plataea Once Alexander told Mardonius the Athenians’ reply, he started moving his army from Thessaly to Athens. He forced those cities between to supply him with troops. The Thessalians encouraged the Persians to attack more & more. When theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [97-144] – Winter Xerxes saw how badly his side lost. He played through several scenarios in his mind & became determined to leave Greece. He set up movements of the troops that made it look like he was going to go to battleContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [40-96] – Naval Battle off Salamis The Greek fleet left Artemisium & went to Salamis, & dropped anchor. The Athenians asked for this because they wanted to evacuate their children to Salamis with the Persian army threatening Attica. It seemed each region ofContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [1-39] – Naval Battle off Artemisium The Greeks also made naval moves. There were 127 Athenian ships, 40 Corinthian, 20 MEgarian, 20 Chalcidean, 18 Eginetan, 12 Sicyonian, 10 Spartan, 8 Epidaurian, 7 Eretrian, 5 Troezenian, 2 Styrean, 4 Cean & 7 Locrian. ThisContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [138-239] – Battle of Thermopylae This expedition against Athens threatened all of Greece. While they all knew it was coming, they didn’t see it in the same way. Some submitted to Persia thinking they wouldn’t get hurt. Others refused to comply. These feltContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [56-137] – Persians Cross into Europe Once the 7 process of crossing over into Europe was over, Xerxes looked at his army. A Hellespontian looked at it & said: “Jove, you’ve taken on the form of a Persian named Xerxes to lead theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [1-55] – Persian Preparations When Darius heard of the news of the Battle of Marathon, he became enraged & even more determined to lead an army against Greece. He sent messengers around throughout the empire that fresh levies would be raised to fightContinue Reading

Disposition of the Biennial Act 1737 The Biennial Act of Carolina referring the biennial meeting of Assemblies & regulation of elections & members. It seems that these assemblies have powers that the Crown never gave to them. The power to convene Parliaments is the exclusive privilege of the Crown &Continue Reading

Governor Gabriel Johnston’s Request to Repeal the Biennial Act, 18 October 1736 I’m addressing your Lordships to ask you to advise His Majesty to repeal the Biennial Act, to order that no precinct send in more than 2 members, & relieve me of the task of establishing a precinct withoutContinue Reading

The North Carolina Biennial Act, 1715 Act on Biennial & other Assemblies, & Regulating Elections & Members The Assembly of the colony of North Carolina wishes to enlarge the number of constituencies, as well as increase the frequency with which the assembly will meet. The precincts will be determined byContinue Reading

Governor Burnet of Massachusetts on the Governor’s Salary, 17 September 1728 I thought it’d be best to delay in responding to your message so that you could check in with your constituencies & to see if there was any progress in the question of my salary. But now it’s clearContinue Reading

Massachusetts House of Representatives on the Governor’s Salary, 11 September 1728 The governor’s salary was often used as a weapon by representatives to coerce him into signing bills, as was the case in South Carolina with Governor Glen. The Crown gave instructions to governors to establish a permanent payment ofContinue Reading