Book III Chapter One: Government in General Free action is based on two causes: Moral – the will that determines the act; and Physical – the power that executes the act. The legislative power is the moral cause based on the general will and is the sovereign. The executive powerContinue Reading

Book II Chapter One: Sovereignty is inalienable The conclusion of Book I was that only the general will can direct the state’s forces based on the reason behind its establishment: the common good. Clashing interests create the necessity for societies but common interests allow them to continue. Society must onlyContinue Reading

Book I Chapter One: Introduction “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” With respect to force, people will obey if they are forced to. Without the chains of obedience or slavery, life would definitely be better. The former master and former slave may continue a relationship basedContinue Reading

Chapter 1 – Introduction (1-3) Adam was created by God and told to rule and cultivate the earth. But can we really know who is true heirs are? So, divine right of kings is bullshit. Political power is not parental power. Political power is the power to write and executeContinue Reading

“Hamlet” by Shakespeare Act 1 Scene 1 Guards are changing shifts at night along the castle walls. A ghost has been appearing walking around at night. Hamlet’s friend, Horatio, wants to see it for himself but doesn’t quite believe it. He shows up but he won’t to them and thenContinue Reading

“Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne Montaigne is getting older and all he’s got left is to look back at life. He wants to live a comfortable life but wants to be temperate and moderate. This is difficult because comfort requires avoiding pain and that means goingContinue Reading

any That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them – Michel de Montaigne People are often bothered by their views on things, not the things themselves. We choose to see them as good or bad. If that’s so, whyContinue Reading

Of Cannibals I knew a guy who lived in Brazil for about 10 years or so. He was far to simple to be a liar and I had confidence that he wasn’t making anything up. Most people would describe the people he was telling me about as barbarians or savagesContinue Reading

We often think only stupid people believe in crazy shit. Normally developed minds tend to resist wild beliefs. Perhaps an uneducated mind can’t discern rational from irrational and likely from unlikely. But throwing things out as utterly impossible is silly too because there’s plenty that even the smartest of usContinue Reading

Montaigne is asked by Madame Diane de Foix, on what the best way of educating a child is. He starts off saying he doesn’t know and then goes on for many pages on the best sort of education. It’s very difficult to read into what a child’s natural talents areContinue Reading

  Pantagruel Prologue The following is an account of Pantagruel, which is just as believable as that of Gargantua. No story will ever be as fantastic as that of Gargantua, except that of Pantagruel. Chapter 1 Let’s start with his pedigree. In order to understand someone as good as Pantagruel,Continue Reading

“Of Pedantry” I was always annoyed, when watching Italian farces, to see the pedant (teacher, tutor) to be the complete idiot of the play. Perhaps it was because they just weren’t able to explain themselves to the rest of the characters but it seems that a lot of people areContinue Reading

“Of Custom; We Should Not Easily Change a Law Received” by Michel de Montaigne There is a story that warns us about not being comfortable with customs. A woman starts holding a calf & feeding it. She did this every day until the calf was no longer a calf butContinue Reading

“Gargantua and Pantagruel” Book I by François Rabelais   “Gargantua and Pantagruel” by François Rabelais Book I Chapter 1 Gargantua is the father of Pantagruel, both giants. We should all be so lucky as to have our genealogy laid out so neatly as theirs. There are so many people withContinue Reading

“The Prince” by Niccolò Machiavelli Chapter I All states are either republics or principalities. Principalities are either hereditary or annexed to the hereditary state. The people in these states are used to either living in freedom or under a prince. They are either acquired by the prince or given toContinue Reading

“Confessions” by Augustine Book I I. [Addressed to God] You should be praised because of your infinite power and wisdom. Man is so little, sinful and proud. But at least we have the ability to look to you. You made us but you made our hearts restless. Should I callContinue Reading

“The Acts of the Apostles” 1 “Jesus Taken Up Into Heaven” Jesus did all of his stuff until he went to heaven after giving instructions with his boys. He made his point with his words and actions, fulfilling prophecies. He stuck around for 40 more days. “Don’t leave Jerusalem. WaitContinue Reading

“The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Caesar” by Plutarch Julius Caesar’s wife was Cornelia, Cinna’s daughter. Cinna used to run things in Rome. Then Sulla came along and was the big boss. Sulla stopped Caesar at every attempt to gain some sort of office in Rome. The reasonContinue Reading

“Gospel According to Matthew” 1 “The Genealogy of Jesus” Abraham to David -> 14 generations David to the Exile to Babylon -> 14 generations Exile to Jesus -> 14 generations 42 generations between Abraham and Jesus. “Joseph Accepts Jesus as His Son” Mary and Joseph tied the knot but hadn’tContinue Reading

“The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Alexander” by Plutarch “The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Alexander” by Plutarch (Notes) The book “The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans” is not so much a history book but a series of biographies about great men. Often theContinue Reading