Thucydides wrote The History of the Peloponnesian War. It’s a very long book going over the war between the Athens and its allies, & Sparta and its allies. It’s very detailed & some consider it the first really well written history book. Herodotus’s The Histories was obviously somewhat of a model forContinue Reading

Plato – Statesman Theodorus wants the Eleatic Stranger to show how the Statesman, Philosopher & Sophist are all different. Socrates allows a young Socrates “to be the interlocutor”. They start off saying that the sciences should be divided into subcategories. The sciences are divided between action-based knowledge (handicrafts, etc.) &Continue Reading

Pausanias, betrayer of Greece  Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 5 – Second Congress at Lacedaemon – Preparations for War and Diplomatic Skirmishes – Cylon – Pausanias – Themistocles A few years after this, the affairs of Corcyra & Potidaea served as a pretext for war.Continue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 4 – From the End of the Persian to the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War – The Progress from Supremacy to Empire Athens’s power grew like this… After the Persians went home, defeat at sea & on land, the SpartanContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 3 – Congress of the Peloponnesian Confederacy at Lacedaemon The Athenians & Peloponnesians had a lot of complaints against one another. Corinth complained her colony under siege by the Athenians. The Athenians complained that the Peloponnesians were inciting revolts inContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 2 – Causes of the War – The Affair of Epidamnus – The Affair of Potidaea Epidamnus is at the entrance of the Ionic Gulf & its neighbors are the Taulantians, an Illyrian people. It was originally a colony ofContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 1, Chapter 1 – The State of Greece from the earliest Times to the Commencement of the Peloponnesian War Thucydides began writing about the war as soon as it started, thinking people would want to know the facts. The war had allContinue Reading

Aristotle – On Interpretation We need to understand terms like “noun” & “verb” then “negation”, “affirmation”, preposition” & “sentence”. Spoken words are symbols of mental experiences & written words are symbols of spoken words. We don’t all have the same writing or the same sounds but our mental experiences areContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [114-122] – Foundation of the Athenian Empire The Greeks had left Mycale for the Hellespont but winds forced them to Lectum & then on to Hellespont. When they arrived, they found the bridge had already been destroyed. The Spartans wanted to go homeContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [90-113] – Liberation of Asia Minor On the same day as the Battle of Plataea, the Persians lost a battle at Mycale in Ionia. The Greek fleet was still in Delos & its admiral Leotychides received a messenger from Samos in secret. TheyContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [1-89] – Battle of Plataea Once Alexander told Mardonius the Athenians’ reply, he started moving his army from Thessaly to Athens. He forced those cities between to supply him with troops. The Thessalians encouraged the Persians to attack more & more. When theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [97-144] – Winter Xerxes saw how badly his side lost. He played through several scenarios in his mind & became determined to leave Greece. He set up movements of the troops that made it look like he was going to go to battleContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [40-96] – Naval Battle off Salamis The Greek fleet left Artemisium & went to Salamis, & dropped anchor. The Athenians asked for this because they wanted to evacuate their children to Salamis with the Persian army threatening Attica. It seemed each region ofContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [1-39] – Naval Battle off Artemisium The Greeks also made naval moves. There were 127 Athenian ships, 40 Corinthian, 20 MEgarian, 20 Chalcidean, 18 Eginetan, 12 Sicyonian, 10 Spartan, 8 Epidaurian, 7 Eretrian, 5 Troezenian, 2 Styrean, 4 Cean & 7 Locrian. ThisContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia”: Coups of the Magians & Darius (61-119, 126-141, 150-160) 61. Cambyes remained in Egypt. At this time, 2 Magi brothers revolted against him. One was a comptroller of his household. They knew Smerdis was dead but most Persians did not. The other brotherContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia” (1-38) Cambyses, king of Persia, decided to go to war with the Egyptians. The reason was because an Egyptian upset with his king, Amasis, because he felt slighted by him for sending him to Persia to be Cyrus’s eye doctor. To get even,Continue Reading

Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus (525 BC – 456 BC) List of characters: K = Kratos (God of Strength) HP = Hephaestus (God of Blacksmithing & Fire) P = Prometheus (Titan, personifying science & technology – name means “foresight”) C = Chorus of Oceanids (Daughters of Oceanus) O = Oceanus (Titan,Continue Reading