4.23‑31 The war against Tacfarinas finally over. More prosecutions. This was the last year of the struggles with the Numidian Tacfarinas. Former generals thought it was all over & let him roam. There were statues all over Rome celebrating his defeat but he was still at large, ravaging Africa, gettingContinue Reading

4.1‑22 Intrigues in Rome: the continued rise of Sejanus, who poisons Drusus. Prosecutions of C. Silius and others. Caius Asinius & Caius Antistius were consuls in Tiberius’s 9th year as emperor. The State & Tiberius’s house were in a state of tranquility, since he saw Germanicus’s death as a happyContinue Reading

3.56‑76 Intrigues in Rome: Tiberius against Silanus. Tacfarinas’ revolt in Numidia, continued. Tiberius got applause for trying to check against informers. He wrote to the Senate asking for tribunitian power for Drusus. This was a move that Augustus used to gain supremacy without using the name of king or dictator.Continue Reading

3.40‑55 Revolt in Gaul. Intrigues in Rome. That year, some states in Gaul attempted a revolt out of pressure of heavy debts. The biggest instigators were Julius Florus of the Treveri & Julius Sacrovir of the Aedui. They were of noble birth from ancestors who’d been given Roman citizenship outContinue Reading

3.20‑39 Roman domestic politics and legal matters. The same year, Tacfarinas, who’d been defeated by Camillus the year before, started hostilities again in Africa. At first he started with small raids so as not to get caught. Then he started attacking villages. He moved on to wholesale plunder. He wasContinue Reading

Tacitus – The Annals, Book 3: 20-22 AD – 3.1‑19 Rome after Germanicus: eulogies, intrigues, and adjustment. Without stopping in her voyage, Agrippina arrived at the island of Corcyra, facing Calabria. She went there to clear her mind. Friends & underlings flocked to Brundiusm, the logical landing point from Corcyra,Continue Reading

2.47‑88 Intrigues in Rome; Tacfarinas’ revolt in Numidia; Germanicus’ grand tour thru Asia as special foreign affairs envoy. Piso against Germanicus, and death of Germanicus, poison widely suspected. That year, 12 Asian cities were destroyed by an earthquake at night. People ran out of the cities only to be swallowedContinue Reading

2.27‑46 The opposition in Rome to Tiberius: Libo Drusus, Piso, and Asinius Gallus. At that time, Libo Drusus of the Scribonii family, was accused of scheming a revolution. Firmius Catus, a senator & friend of Libo’s, convinced him to consult with an astrologer, perform magical rites & get dreams interpreted.Continue Reading

  Tacitus – The Annals, Book 2: 16-19 AD 2.1‑26 More war in Germany. During the consulship of Sisenna Statilius Taurus & Lucius Libo, there were rumblings in the east, starting with the Parthians. They had received a foreigner king from Rome whom they didn’t want. This was despite theContinue Reading

1.72‑81 Intrigues in Rome. Triumphal honors went to Aulus Caecina, Lucius Apronius & Caius Silius for their work under Germanicus. Tiberius refused the title of “Father of the Country” even though the Senate had approved it. He felt he was already in a precarious situation, it wouldn’t be good toContinue Reading

1.55‑71 The war in Germany. Germanicus had a triump decreed for him even though the war continued. He spent most of his time preparing for the summer campaign but he made moves on the Chatti in the spring. He was hoping for a divide between 2 factions, represented by ArminiusContinue Reading

1.31‑54 Germanicus and the mutiny of the German legions. The legions in Germany began to mutiny even more that those in Pannonia, hoping that Germanicus Caesar wouldn’t be able to deal with another’s supremacy & surrender himself to the legions. There were 2 armies on the banks of the Rhine:Continue Reading

1.16‑30 Drusus and the mutiny of the Pannonian legions At this point, a mutiny broke out in Pannonia (a region near the Danube River). The legion under Junius Blaesus had been allowed time to mourn Augustus’s death. The men began to be demoralized, quarreled, & craved luxury & idleness. AContinue Reading

Tacitus – The Annals, Book 1: 14-15 A.D.   1.1‑15 Death and funeral of Augustus; accession of Tiberius Rome had been ruled by kings. Lucius Brutus established the consulship. There were periodic dictatorships due to crises. The decemvirs ruled for 2 years & the the consular military tribunes were short-lived.Continue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 5, Chapter 17 – Sixteenth Year of the War—The Melian Conference—Fate of Melos The next summer, Alcibiades sailed with 20 ships to Argos to take suspected people from the pro-Spartan oligarchs (300 of them). The Athenians also made an expedition against theContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 5, Chapter 16 – Feeling against Sparta in Peloponnese—League of the Mantineans, Eleans, Argives, and Athenians—Battle of Mantinea and breaking up of the League The alliance between Athens & Sparta was being disturbed by Corinth & cities in the Peloponnese, especially byContinue Reading

Thucydides – History of the Peloponnesian War, Book 5, Chapter 15 – Tenth Year of the War—Death of Cleon and Brasidas—Peace of Nicias The truce lasted until after the Pythian Games. The Athenians expelled the Delians from Delos thinking they’d been polluted by an old offense – likely due toContinue Reading

Aristotle – Politics Book 6 Ch. 1 We need to discuss mods of organization & advantages to each form of government. We also need to consider the possible combinations. Some make democracies more oligarchical & some make oligarchies more democratic. The combinations will be in deliberation, election of officers &Continue Reading

Aristotle – Politics, Book 5 Ch. 1 Let’s look at the causes of revolution, their nature, what they devolve into & how to preserve – that may change based on the form of government. Democracy arises from the idea that those who are equal are equal in everything. Those whoContinue Reading

Aristotle – Politics, Book 3 Ch. 1 All arts & sciences that encompass an entire subject don’t come into being in fragments. These arts & sciences consider the entirety of the field. g. In gymnastics, they think not only about different types of training for different bodies but what theContinue Reading