39. While Cambyses was in Egypt, Spartans sent a force to Samos against Polycrates. Polycrates had conquered the island with his 2 brothers but later he killed one & sent the other into exile. Polycrates made with Amasis & he became more powerful. The whole Greek world took notice. HisContinue Reading

“On Liberty” (1859), Chapter 5: Applications, by John Stuart Mill We’ve laid out the principles so we can discuss their applications in government & morals. This is to bring the meaning & limits of 2 doctrines into greater clarity 1 – The individual is not accountable to society if hisContinue Reading

“On Liberty” (1859), Chapter 4: Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individuals, by John Stuart Mill What is the limit of sovereignty of an individual over himself? Where does the authority begin? Individuality should involve the arena of life where the individual is mostly concerned. SocietyContinue Reading

“On Liberty” (1859), Chapter 3: Of Individuality as one of the Elements of Well-Being, by John Stuart Mill Let’s examine if the same reasons don’t require that men should be free to act upon their opinions without hindrance from fellow man, so long as it’s at their own risk &Continue Reading

“On Liberty” (1859), Chapter 1: Introduction, by John Stuart Mill Civil or Social liberty – nature of limits of power legitimately exercised over the individual’s will Struggle between liberty & authority in the past was between subjects & the government. Liberty was meant as protection against tyranny from the government.Continue Reading

“Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” or “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals” by Immanuel Kant (1785) – Part 3 Transition from the Metaphysics of Morals to the Critique of Pure Practical Reason 1 – The Concept of Freedom is the key to explaining autonomy of the will RationalContinue Reading

“Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” or “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals” by Immanuel Kant (1785) – Part 2 It’s impossible to find an act done purely out of moral duty, when you look deeper, almost always is the action accompanied by a motive of selfishness on topContinue Reading

“Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals” or “Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals” by Immanuel Kant (1785) – Part 1 Preface Ancient Greek Philosophy had 3 sciences: Physics, Ethics & Logic. All knowledge is either material or formal Material: considers some object. Material philosophy has to do with determinateContinue Reading

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 2 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) Part 2 The man who put up a fence around a plot of land & said “this is mine” was the founder of civil society. It should have been ignored but the natural wayContinue Reading

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) Dedication to Geneva I’m glad to be from Geneva & in this discourse I reflect on equality & inequality The best place to live is where: Society is proportionate to human limitations The sovereign & people’sContinue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 4: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms (Ch. 9-12) Chapter 9 Gulliver was there during the council meetings which his master attended & reported to him that they debated the extermination of Yahoos The Case for Extermination: They are filthy,Continue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 4: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms (Ch. 5-8) Gulliver realized he made humans look worse than Yahoos. He had become so enamored with the Houyhnhnms in all things that he overemphasized human faults & downplayed its strengths. The master,Continue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 4: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms (Ch. 1-4) Gulliver stayed at home for 5 months before leaving his pregnant wife to be a captain of a 350 ton ship. They left Portsmouth for the Canary Islands, where he hiredContinue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 3: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib & Japan (Ch. 7-11) Chapter 7 He was dropped off in Maldonada & went to the island of Luggnagg, east of Japan. The island was in an alliance with Japan & hope to findContinue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 3: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib and Japan (Ch. 4-6) Chapter 4 He didn’t feel mistreated but wasn’t sad to leave. They were too absorbed in math & music, & were just generally boring. It was far too abstract &Continue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 3: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib and Japan (Ch. 1-3) Chapter 1 He’d only been home for 10 days when the Captain of a previous voyage he’d been on made him an offer for another trip that he couldn’t refuseContinue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 2: A Voyage to Brobdingnag (Ch. 5-8) Chapter 5 One day before the dwarf left, Glumdalclitch & Gulliver were out walking under a small apple tree & the little guy shook the branches & apples the size of barrels fell. One ofContinue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 2: A Voyage to Brobdingnag (Ch. 1-4) Chapter 1 After 10 months of boredom, he found another job on a ship to Surat (India) They had smooth sailing until the Cape of Good Hope where they had to disembark because of aContinue Reading

“Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift (1726) – Part 1: A Voyage to Lilliput (Ch. 5-8) Chapter 5 Blefuscu was an island across an 800 yard channel from Lilliput They didn’t know about Gulliver. Communication & trade had been cut off since the beginning of the war He came up withContinue Reading