“Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 8) (1835)

Chapter 8: What Tempers the Tyranny of the Majority in the United States I – Absence of Administrative Centralization 2 types of centralization – government & administrative Only government centralization in the US If directing power had both, there’s be no freedom because it have the right to command, & the faculty & habit to… Read more “Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 8) (1835)

“Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 7)

Chapter 7: The Omnipotence of the Majority in the United States and Its Effects Democratic government’s essence is absolute sovereignty of the will of the majority Legislature is chose to represent the majority directly for short terms – almost all government power is here Laws weaken the executive to the point where it has no… Read more “Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 7)

“Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 6) (1835)

Chapter 6: The Real Advantages Derived by American Society From Democratic Government I – The General Tendency of Laws Under the Sway of American Democracy and the Instincts of Those Who Apply Them defects of Democracy are obvious but the benefits are only seen in the long run laws can be defective & incomplete most… Read more “Democracy in America” by Tocqueville (Book 1, Part 2, Chapter 6) (1835)

“Manifesto of the Communist Party” – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

“Manifesto of the Communist Party” – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Introduction Communism is coming. All of the old powers of Europe right and left to stop it This is an acknowledgement that Communism is a force to be reckoned with Communists need to stop hiding and make themselves be heard Chapter 1 – Bourgeois… Read more “Manifesto of the Communist Party” – Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

“Wealth of Nations” Book I by Adam Smith (1776)

“Wealth of Nations” Book I by Adam Smith (1776) Introduction Discussion on Wealth: Ratio of Total Amount Produced / Total Number of Consumers If this ratio goes up, the nation is better off and wealthier Q: Why do country have different have different ratios? Either higher or lower? Chapter 1 – Division of Labor The… Read more “Wealth of Nations” Book I by Adam Smith (1776)

Federalist No. 71 – Alexander Hamilton

Federalist No. 71 – Alexander Hamilton The President’s term should be four years. Some think that it’s too long and he could amass power. In this span, he has time to counteract temporary passions or influences of factions in the public and their representatives. His duty is to protect the interests of the people and… Read more Federalist No. 71 – Alexander Hamilton

Federalist No. 70 – Alexander Hamilton

Federalist No. 70 – Alexander Hamilton A single executive is necessary for accountability, “executive energy” and defense against legislative encroachment on his power. One is enough to ensure secrecy, fewer fights and allowing decisions to be made quickly. Congress will have time to deliberate and listen to open discussion to prevent tyranny of the majority.… Read more Federalist No. 70 – Alexander Hamilton

Federalist No. 69 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 69 – Alexander Hamilton The President won’t be an elected monarch. He can only negate acts, not pass them. He can have a veto overturned but a king can’t. Both the President and King serve as commander and chief. A King can raise and maintain an army but the Congress alone can do… Read more Federalist No. 69 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 68 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 68 – Alexander Hamilton The Electoral College allows the sense of the people playing a role in selecting the President without mayhem and disorder. A direct election would bring us chaos and instability. Electors in the Electoral College would be unbiased since they don’t hold office. This ensures that the President is a… Read more Federalist No. 68 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 51 – James Madison (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 51 – James Madison Explains how the structure of government has an effect on liberty. Each branch should be mostly independent – no branch should have too much power in selecting members of the other branches. Easy to make executive and legislative branches elected positions but it’s difficult for judges to be chosen this… Read more Federalist No. 51 – James Madison (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 47 – James Madison

Federalist No. 47 – James Madison Detractors say that the Constitution doesn’t divide the powers up enough so that they’re not wholly independent and that they are unevenly distributed. Important to focus on separation of powers. If too much power is given to one branch, it’s tyrannical but how much to give to each one… Read more Federalist No. 47 – James Madison

Federalist No. 31 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 31 – Alexander Hamilton The federal government needs to tax because it needs money to perform its functions Needs enough power to fulfill its responsibilities Can’t predict future problems of the government and shouldn’t be constrained Needs money to do those things and it needs to be able to fix problems The structure… Read more Federalist No. 31 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 15 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 15 – Alexander Hamilton The Confederation didn’t preserve peace and happiness. And will probably lead to anarchy, riots, large debts, territories near foreign powers, no military, no money, no commerce, no foreign respect and falling prospects. The Confederation needed a stronger central government but couldn’t do so without taking away from the states.… Read more Federalist No. 15 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 10 – James Madison (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 10 – James Madison The best argument for the Constitution is that it controls damage and chaos of factions – people have banded together to promote and protect special economic and political interests. These often work against the public’s interest. The Articles of Confederation and strong, independent minded state governments have been unable… Read more Federalist No. 10 – James Madison (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 9 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 9 – Alexander Hamilton A strong union will act as a defense barrier against invasion and domestic problems. This will come from a system of checks and balances between the different branches of government. Compare the branches of government to planets orbiting the sun – in a single system altogether but also as… Read more Federalist No. 9 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 8 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 8 – Alexander Hamilton The problem with in-fighting is bigger than foreign attack The US has no civil defense set up – no castles, no city walls, no militia, etc. Large states could overrun their smaller neighbors If disunited, standing armies would be necessary and they are costly and have many other problems… Read more Federalist No. 8 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 7 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 7 – Alexander Hamilton If states aren’t united, they will be more likely to go to war with other countries including neighbors Border disputes, commercial competition, public debt may lead states to fight each other. This will make us look weak and disunited and either be tempted by foreign influence or become the… Read more Federalist No. 7 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 6 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 6 – Alexander Hamilton Commercial clashes have caused nations to be unfriendly with other nations Wars happen all the time based on this, religion and border disputes The British have almost always been at war for these reasons Popular wars often based on commerce between 2 parties are often more destructive than they… Read more Federalist No. 6 – Alexander Hamilton (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 5 – John Jay (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 5 – John Jay If our country descended into 3 or 4 countries, there’d be many border disputes and many other problems. Large differences would occur and might lead to a war. 3 or 4 nations would have different commercial interests and different alliances with foreign countries and it’s possible that 2 nations… Read more Federalist No. 5 – John Jay (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 4 – John Jay (1787-1788)

Federalist No. 4 – John Jay One government uniting the states will deter France, Spain and Britain from interfering in our lives. The US is growing its economy and that may spark tensions between the US and other economic powers. A single government can defend better than 13 individual states. We need a Constitution to… Read more Federalist No. 4 – John Jay (1787-1788)