“The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” Chapter 16 by Edward Gibbon (1776–1789)

“The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” Chapter 16 by Edward Gibbon The Conduct of the Roman Government Towards the Christians From the Reign of Nero to that of Constantine Christianity persecuted by the Roman Emperors – We don’t know why non-believers were so anti-Christian. But in the 80 years after Jesus’s death disciples… Read more “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” Chapter 16 by Edward Gibbon (1776–1789)

Chapter 15 of “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” by Edward Gibbon (1776–1789)

  The progress of Christian religion and the sentiments, manners, numbers and conditions of the primitive Christians Christianity is an essential part of Roman history because of its infiltration into Roman politics and power. Difficulties in inquiry Scanty and suspicious documents of church history make study of facts difficult. Must reveal imperfections of church history… Read more Chapter 15 of “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” by Edward Gibbon (1776–1789)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book IV (1762)

Book IV Chapter One: The General Will is Indestructible When an assembly is gathered, all are convened only to consider one will, the common good, which is apparent and only good sense is need to perceive it. This peace, unity and equality are at odds with political subtleties. Honest and simple men are difficult to… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book IV (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book III (1762)

Book III Chapter One: Government in General Free action is based on two causes: Moral – the will that determines the act; and Physical – the power that executes the act. The legislative power is the moral cause based on the general will and is the sovereign. The executive power is the physical cause based… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book III (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book II (1762)

Book II Chapter One: Sovereignty is inalienable The conclusion of Book I was that only the general will can direct the state’s forces based on the reason behind its establishment: the common good. Clashing interests create the necessity for societies but common interests allow them to continue. Society must only be governed by common interests.… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book II (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book I (1762)

Book I Chapter One: Introduction “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” With respect to force, people will obey if they are forced to. Without the chains of obedience or slavery, life would definitely be better. The former master and former slave may continue a relationship based on superiority-inferiority but force is… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book I (1762)

“Of Custom; We Should Not Easily Change a Law Received” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“Of Custom; We Should Not Easily Change a Law Received” by Michel de Montaigne There is a story that warns us about not being comfortable with customs. A woman starts holding a calf and feeding it. She did this every day until the calf was no longer a calf but an ox. Custom can be… Read more “Of Custom; We Should Not Easily Change a Law Received” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)