“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 2 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755)

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 2 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) Part 2 The man who put up a fence around a plot of land & said “this is mine” was the founder of civil society. It should have been ignored but the natural way of life probably necessitated the… Read more “Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 2 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755)

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 1 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755)

“Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) Dedication to Geneva I’m glad to be from Geneva & in this discourse I reflect on equality & inequality The best place to live is where: Society is proportionate to human limitations The sovereign & people’s interest are the same &… Read more “Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men” Part 1 by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755)

“The Law” by Frédéric Bastiat (1850)

Pigeons show what they think of the law “The Law” by Frédéric Bastiat (1850) The law has been perverted Not just derailed in its cause but applied to pursue the opposite We have been given a gift from God Life – physical, intellectual & moral He gave us faculties to maintain it, develop it &… Read more “The Law” by Frédéric Bastiat (1850)

“Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen” (1789)

“Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen” (1789) The Representatives of France in a National Assembly Because of past ignorance, neglect & contempt of human rights are the cause of public misfortune & corruption of government Trying to make natural & inalienable rights always in the mind of the public so that they protect them… Read more “Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen” (1789)

“Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle” by Blaise Pascal (1654)

“Treatise on Arithmetical Triangle” by Blaise Pascal (1654) +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=  1st consequence – In every arithmetical triangle, all the cells of the first row & first column are the same as the generating cell. Each cell in the triangle is equal to the sum of the immediately preceding row & column +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+= 2nd consequence – In… Read more “Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle” by Blaise Pascal (1654)

“What Is a Classic?” by Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869)

“What Is a Classic?” by Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869) It all depends… if someone I trust recommends it to me, I’ll give it a whirl – all my attention & give my honest opinion The English have been writing essays for non-personal opinions – abstract & moral – should be moderate & leisurely – not… Read more “What Is a Classic?” by Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869)

Samuel de Champlain – Voyages, 1604

Samuel de Champlain – Voyages, 1604 There are many reasons why people go abroad – money, glory or for public benefit – most of this action takes place on the seas The English hired John Cabot The Portuguese hired Gaspar Cortereal The French hired Jacques Cartier The English continued exploration & had some setback with… Read more Samuel de Champlain – Voyages, 1604

Christoper Columbus – Letter to the King and Queen of Spain c. 1494

Christoper Columbus – Letter to the King and Queen of Spain c. 1494 Notes/Recommendations concerning the Island of Espaniola About 2000 settlers should want to go there because of farming & trading to nearby islands Should found 3 or 4 towns in convenient places around the island Nobody should be allowed to mine for gold… Read more Christoper Columbus – Letter to the King and Queen of Spain c. 1494

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 9-12

VIII. The Fundamentals Of The Christian Religion 556 – Christianity looks to establish a great religion For this, man need it to explain his nature & that of the world around him Many revile it because they don’t understand it God is great, powerful & eternal but removed from Man – Deism Christianity relies on… Read more “Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 9-12

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 6-7

VI. The Philosophers 374 – What surprises me is that people aren’t surprised by their own weakness They are so serious & they follow their life’s path out of certainty of what reason & justice are They’re constantly deceived & they think it’s their own fault Many people glorify skeptics [which they ought to be… Read more “Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 6-7

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 2-5

“Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) I. Thoughts On Mind And On Style II. The Misery Of Man Without God 72 – Man’s Disproportion This is where innate knowledge leads us If not, there’s no truth in man If so, he’ll find a cause of humiliation Man should focus on nature & not small & unimportant… Read more “Pensées” by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) Selections from Parts 2-5

“Dissertation on First Principles of Government” by Thomas Paine (1795)

“Dissertation on First Principles of Government” by Thomas Paine (1795) One subject is near & dear to most people’s hearts, government because no matter if they are poor or rich, their prosperity is tied to it Should know its principles There has been precious little development in improving governments excluding the American Revolution European government… Read more “Dissertation on First Principles of Government” by Thomas Paine (1795)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book IV (1762)

Book IV Chapter One: The General Will is Indestructible When an assembly is gathered, all are convened only to consider one will, the common good, which is apparent and only good sense is need to perceive it. This peace, unity and equality are at odds with political subtleties. Honest and simple men are difficult to… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book IV (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book III (1762)

Book III Chapter One: Government in General Free action is based on two causes: Moral – the will that determines the act; and Physical – the power that executes the act. The legislative power is the moral cause based on the general will and is the sovereign. The executive power is the physical cause based… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book III (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book II (1762)

Book II Chapter One: Sovereignty is inalienable The conclusion of Book I was that only the general will can direct the state’s forces based on the reason behind its establishment: the common good. Clashing interests create the necessity for societies but common interests allow them to continue. Society must only be governed by common interests.… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book II (1762)

“The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book I (1762)

Book I Chapter One: Introduction “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.” With respect to force, people will obey if they are forced to. Without the chains of obedience or slavery, life would definitely be better. The former master and former slave may continue a relationship based on superiority-inferiority but force is… Read more “The Social Contract” by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Book I (1762)

“Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne Montaigne is getting older and all he’s got left is to look back at life. He wants to live a comfortable life but wants to be temperate and moderate. This is difficult because comfort requires avoiding pain and that means going toward pleasure, the opposite of… Read more “Upon Some Verses of Virgil” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them” – Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

any That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them – Michel de Montaigne People are often bothered by their views on things, not the things themselves. We choose to see them as good or bad. If that’s so, why not choose to see things… Read more “That the Relish of Good and Evil Depends in a Great Measure upon the Opinion We Have of Them” – Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“Of Cannibalism” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

Of Cannibals I knew a guy who lived in Brazil for about 10 years or so. He was far to simple to be a liar and I had confidence that he wasn’t making anything up. Most people would describe the people he was telling me about as barbarians or savages but I think of them… Read more “Of Cannibalism” by Michel de Montaigne (1580-1595)

“That it is Folly to Measure Truth and Error by Our Own Capacity” by Montaigne (1580-1595)

We often think only stupid people believe in crazy shit. Normally developed minds tend to resist wild beliefs. Perhaps an uneducated mind can’t discern rational from irrational and likely from unlikely. But throwing things out as utterly impossible is silly too because there’s plenty that even the smartest of us doesn’t understand. I used to… Read more “That it is Folly to Measure Truth and Error by Our Own Capacity” by Montaigne (1580-1595)