4.23‑31 The war against Tacfarinas finally over. More prosecutions. This was the last year of the struggles with the Numidian Tacfarinas. Former generals thought it was all over & let him roam. There were statues all over Rome celebrating his defeat but he was still at large, ravaging Africa, gettingContinue Reading

4.1‑22 Intrigues in Rome: the continued rise of Sejanus, who poisons Drusus. Prosecutions of C. Silius and others. Caius Asinius & Caius Antistius were consuls in Tiberius’s 9th year as emperor. The State & Tiberius’s house were in a state of tranquility, since he saw Germanicus’s death as a happyContinue Reading

3.56‑76 Intrigues in Rome: Tiberius against Silanus. Tacfarinas’ revolt in Numidia, continued. Tiberius got applause for trying to check against informers. He wrote to the Senate asking for tribunitian power for Drusus. This was a move that Augustus used to gain supremacy without using the name of king or dictator.Continue Reading

3.40‑55 Revolt in Gaul. Intrigues in Rome. That year, some states in Gaul attempted a revolt out of pressure of heavy debts. The biggest instigators were Julius Florus of the Treveri & Julius Sacrovir of the Aedui. They were of noble birth from ancestors who’d been given Roman citizenship outContinue Reading

3.20‑39 Roman domestic politics and legal matters. The same year, Tacfarinas, who’d been defeated by Camillus the year before, started hostilities again in Africa. At first he started with small raids so as not to get caught. Then he started attacking villages. He moved on to wholesale plunder. He wasContinue Reading

Tacitus – The Annals, Book 3: 20-22 AD – 3.1‑19 Rome after Germanicus: eulogies, intrigues, and adjustment. Without stopping in her voyage, Agrippina arrived at the island of Corcyra, facing Calabria. She went there to clear her mind. Friends & underlings flocked to Brundiusm, the logical landing point from Corcyra,Continue Reading

2.47‑88 Intrigues in Rome; Tacfarinas’ revolt in Numidia; Germanicus’ grand tour thru Asia as special foreign affairs envoy. Piso against Germanicus, and death of Germanicus, poison widely suspected. That year, 12 Asian cities were destroyed by an earthquake at night. People ran out of the cities only to be swallowedContinue Reading

2.27‑46 The opposition in Rome to Tiberius: Libo Drusus, Piso, and Asinius Gallus. At that time, Libo Drusus of the Scribonii family, was accused of scheming a revolution. Firmius Catus, a senator & friend of Libo’s, convinced him to consult with an astrologer, perform magical rites & get dreams interpreted.Continue Reading

  Tacitus – The Annals, Book 2: 16-19 AD 2.1‑26 More war in Germany. During the consulship of Sisenna Statilius Taurus & Lucius Libo, there were rumblings in the east, starting with the Parthians. They had received a foreigner king from Rome whom they didn’t want. This was despite theContinue Reading

1.72‑81 Intrigues in Rome. Triumphal honors went to Aulus Caecina, Lucius Apronius & Caius Silius for their work under Germanicus. Tiberius refused the title of “Father of the Country” even though the Senate had approved it. He felt he was already in a precarious situation, it wouldn’t be good toContinue Reading

1.55‑71 The war in Germany. Germanicus had a triump decreed for him even though the war continued. He spent most of his time preparing for the summer campaign but he made moves on the Chatti in the spring. He was hoping for a divide between 2 factions, represented by ArminiusContinue Reading

1.31‑54 Germanicus and the mutiny of the German legions. The legions in Germany began to mutiny even more that those in Pannonia, hoping that Germanicus Caesar wouldn’t be able to deal with another’s supremacy & surrender himself to the legions. There were 2 armies on the banks of the Rhine:Continue Reading

1.16‑30 Drusus and the mutiny of the Pannonian legions At this point, a mutiny broke out in Pannonia (a region near the Danube River). The legion under Junius Blaesus had been allowed time to mourn Augustus’s death. The men began to be demoralized, quarreled, & craved luxury & idleness. AContinue Reading

Tacitus – The Annals, Book 1: 14-15 A.D.   1.1‑15 Death and funeral of Augustus; accession of Tiberius Rome had been ruled by kings. Lucius Brutus established the consulship. There were periodic dictatorships due to crises. The decemvirs ruled for 2 years & the the consular military tribunes were short-lived.Continue Reading

Pliny the Younger – The Eruption of Vesuvius (Letter 6.20) To Cornelius Tacitus: In the last letter, I wrote about my uncle’s death. But now you’re asking about me, so I’ll tell my version of the events. My uncle left us & I went to go read. Afterwards, I hadContinue Reading

Pliny the Younger – The Eruption of Vesuvius (Letter 6.16) To Cornelius Tacitus: My uncle, Pliny the Elder, died in a terrible incident which also left our region in ruins. Let’s hope that our talking about him will immortalize him. He was with the fleet he was commanding at MisenumContinue Reading

“Meditations” by Marcus Aurelius (170-180 AD)   Book I: a list of “Thank yous” or sources of his wisdom: Grandfather (Verus): morals and even temper Biological father (Annius Verus): modesty and manly character Mother: piety and beneficence abstinence from evil deeds and thoughts simplicity of life, to live unlike mostContinue Reading

“Lucretius” by George Santayana (1910) We don’t know much about Lucretius other than what St. Jerome said about him He’d been given a love potion & went nuts. In between the psychotic episodes, he wrote the poem & it was edited by Cicero. At the age of 44, he killedContinue Reading

“On the Nature of Things” Book 4 by Lucretius (1st Century BC) 1-25 I’m just trying to experience all there is in the world All in order to teach others, to remove the bonds of religion & brace the reader for unpleasant truths that will cause him to recoil &Continue Reading

“On the Nature of Things” Book 3 by Lucretius (1st Century BC)   1-30 Lucretius is following in Epicurus;s footsteps even many years later, in another country, in another language He feels the desire to imitate Epicurus’s work & help spread his word around the world He enjoys reading &Continue Reading