Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [90-113] – Liberation of Asia Minor On the same day as the Battle of Plataea, the Persians lost a battle at Mycale in Ionia. The Greek fleet was still in Delos & its admiral Leotychides received a messenger from Samos in secret. TheyContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 9, “Calliopé” [1-89] – Battle of Plataea Once Alexander told Mardonius the Athenians’ reply, he started moving his army from Thessaly to Athens. He forced those cities between to supply him with troops. The Thessalians encouraged the Persians to attack more & more. When theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [97-144] – Winter Xerxes saw how badly his side lost. He played through several scenarios in his mind & became determined to leave Greece. He set up movements of the troops that made it look like he was going to go to battleContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [40-96] – Naval Battle off Salamis The Greek fleet left Artemisium & went to Salamis, & dropped anchor. The Athenians asked for this because they wanted to evacuate their children to Salamis with the Persian army threatening Attica. It seemed each region ofContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 8, “Urania” [1-39] – Naval Battle off Artemisium The Greeks also made naval moves. There were 127 Athenian ships, 40 Corinthian, 20 MEgarian, 20 Chalcidean, 18 Eginetan, 12 Sicyonian, 10 Spartan, 8 Epidaurian, 7 Eretrian, 5 Troezenian, 2 Styrean, 4 Cean & 7 Locrian. ThisContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [138-239] – Battle of Thermopylae This expedition against Athens threatened all of Greece. While they all knew it was coming, they didn’t see it in the same way. Some submitted to Persia thinking they wouldn’t get hurt. Others refused to comply. These feltContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [56-137] – Persians Cross into Europe Once the 7 process of crossing over into Europe was over, Xerxes looked at his army. A Hellespontian looked at it & said: “Jove, you’ve taken on the form of a Persian named Xerxes to lead theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 7, “Polymnia” [1-55] – Persian Preparations When Darius heard of the news of the Battle of Marathon, he became enraged & even more determined to lead an army against Greece. He sent messengers around throughout the empire that fresh levies would be raised to fightContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 6, “Erato” [94-140] – Battle of Marathon While the Eginetans & Athenians were fighting, Darius made plans of his own. He’d had his servant remind him about the Athenians, & the Pisistratidae were urging him to do something. He saw it all a good excuseContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 6, “Erato” [43-93] – Affairs in Greece Next year Darius sent down his new son-in-law, Mardonius, with a large army to Cilicia. He took the army & marched to the Hellespont & the navy sailed there on its own. Mardonius destroyed Ionian tyrants & replacedContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 6, “Erato” [1-42] – End of the Ionian Revolt Histiaeus was given permission to go to Sardis. Once he arrived, he spoke with governor Artaphernes about the Ionian rebellion. Histiaeus said he had no idea why it had happened but wanted to get to theContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 5, “Terpischore” [97-126] – Ionian Greeks Capture Sardis The Athenians were already on the wrong side of the Persians when Aristagoras showed up, freshly dismiss from Sparta. Athens was the 2nd most powerful city. He told them of the good things in Asia & howContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 5, “Terpischore” [56-96] – Affairs in Athens Hipparchus’s dream occurred before a festival where a man came to him & told him a riddle. He told dream interpreters about it & offered sacrifices, then went off to the procession he would die in. The GephyraeansContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 5, “Terpischore” [29-55] – Ionian Revolt & Affairs in Greece The main Parians went to Miletus. When they saw how bad the Milesian land was but saw how well some farms ran, they wrote down the farmers’ names. When they returned to the city ofContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 5, “Terpischore” [1-28] – The Thracians The Persians that Darius left back in Europe had Megabazus as their general. They reduced the people of Perinthius first. The Perinthians had been subdued before by the Paeaonians. An Oracle told the Paeaonians to fight the Perinthians. TheyContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 4, “Melpomene” [145-205] – Greeks in Cyrene become Subjects of the Persian Empire 145. Around this time, an expedition was about to be led into Libya on a long distant pretext. The descendants of the Argonauts were driven from Lemnos by the Pelasgi & hadContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 4, “Melpomene” [83-144] – Darius’s Campaign against the Scythians 83. Darius began preparations for his invasion of the Scythians. He put out orders to get troops, ships & supplies to build a bridge across the Thracian Bosphorous. Ardabanus, his brother, tried to convince him notContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 4, “Melpomene” [1-82] – Country & Customs of the Scythians After taking Babylon, Darius turned his attention to Scythia. He wanted revenge on them for when they invaded Media. It had been 28 years since they’d come down & overthrew the Medes. The Scythians hadContinue Reading

Herodotus – The Histories, Book 3, “Thalia”: Coups of the Magians & Darius (61-119, 126-141, 150-160) 61. Cambyes remained in Egypt. At this time, 2 Magi brothers revolted against him. One was a comptroller of his household. They knew Smerdis was dead but most Persians did not. The other brotherContinue Reading

39. While Cambyses was in Egypt, Spartans sent a force to Samos against Polycrates. Polycrates had conquered the island with his 2 brothers but later he killed one & sent the other into exile. Polycrates made with Amasis & he became more powerful. The whole Greek world took notice. HisContinue Reading