Samuel Adams


American State Papers / American Historical Documents

Susan B. Anthony



Anders Aslund


Francis Bacon

Frédéric Bastiat

William Berkeley

Robert Beverley


John Bland

British State Papers

Jeanne Boydston

William Bradford

Robert Campbell

Dale Carnegie

Samuel de Champlain

Josiah Child

Christoper Columbus

Anna Julia Cooper

John Cotton

Samuel Davies

Angela Davis

Frederick Douglass

William Douglass


John Erskine


Benjamin Franklin

French State Papers

Edward Gibbon

Angelina Grimke

Richard Hakluyt

Friedrich Hayek

William Hazlitt


Thomas Hobbes

Eric Hoffer


David Hume

Immanuel Kant

John Locke


Thomas Babington Macaulay


Marcus Aurelius

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels

John Stuart Mill

John Milton




Blaise Pascal

Thomas Paine

Walter Horatio Pater


Pliny the Younger



Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve

George Santayana

Joseph Schumpeter


Adam Smith


Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Lucy Stone & Henry Blackwell

Sun Tzu

Jonathan Swift



Alexis de Tocqueville

  • Democracy in America, Volume 1
    • Chapter 1 – Exterior Form of North America
    • Chapter 2 – Origin of the Anglo-Americans, and its importance in relation to their future condition
      • Reasons of certain anomalies which the laws and customs of the Anglo-Americans present
    • Chapter 3 – Social Condition of the Anglo-Americans
      • The striking characteristic of the social condition of the Anglo-Americans is its essential Democracy
      • Political consequences of the social condition of the Anglo-Americans
    • Chapter 4 – The principle of the sovereignty of the people in America
    • Chapter 5 – Necessity of examining the condition of the States before that of the Union at large
      • The American system of townships and municipal bodies
      • Limits of the townships
      • Authorities of the township in New England
      • Existence of the township
      • Public spirit of the townships of New England
      • The counties of New England
      • Administration in New England
      • General remarks on the Administration of the United States
      • Of the State
      • Legislative power of the State
      • The executive power of the State
      • Political effects of the system of local administration in the United States
    • Chapter 6 – Judicial power in the United States, and its influence on political society
      • Other powers granted to the American Judges
    • Chapter 7 – Political jurisdiction in the United States
    • Chapter 8 – The Federal Constitution
      • History of the Federal Constitution
      • Summary of the Federal Constitution
      • Prerogative of the Federal Government
      • Federal Powers
      • Legislative Powers
      • A further difference between the Senate and the House of Representatives
      • The executive power
      • Differences between the position of the President of the United States and that of a Constitutional King of France
      • Accidental causes which may increase the influence of the Executive Government
      • Why the President of the United States does not require the majority of the two Houses in order to carry on the Government
      • Election of the President
      • Mode of election
      • Crisis of the election
      • Re-election of the President
      • Federal Courts
      • Means of determining the jurisdiction of the Federal Courts
      • Different cases of jurisdiction
      • Procedure of the Federal Courts
      • High rank of the Supreme Courts amongst the great powers of the State
      • In what respects the Federal Constitution is superior to that of the States
      • Characteristics which distinguish the Federal Constitution of the United States of America from all other Federal Constitutions
      • Advantages of the Federal system in general, and its special utility in America
      • Why the Federal system is not adapted to all peoples, and how the Anglo-Americans were enabled to adopt it
    • Chapter 9 – Why the People may strictly be said to govern in the United States
    • Chapter 10 – Parties in the United States
      • Remains of the aristocratic Party in the United States
    • Chapter 11 – Liberty of the Press in the United States
    • Chapter 12 – Political Associations in the United States
    • Chapter 13 – Government of the Democracy in America
      • Universal Suffrage
      • Choice of the People, and instinctive Preferences of the American Democracy
      • Causes which may partly correct the Tendencies of the Democracy
      • Influence which the American Democracy has exercised on the Laws relating to Elections
      • Public Officers under the control of the Democracy in America
      • Arbitrary Power of Magistrates under the rule of the American Democracy
      • Instability of the Administration in the United States
      • Charges levied by the State under the rule of the American Democracy
      • Tendencies of the American Democracy as regards the Salaries of public Officers
      • Difficulty of distinguishing the Causes which contribute to the Economy of the American Government
      • Whether the Expenditure of the United States can be compared to that of France
      • Corruption and vices of the Rulers in a Democracy, and consequent Effects upon public Morality
      • Efforts of which a Democracy is capable
      • Self-control of the American Democracy
      • Conduct of foreign Affairs, by the American Democracy
    • Chapter 14 – What the real Advantages are which American Society derives from the Government of the Democracy
      • General Tendency of the Laws under the Rule of the American Democracy, and Habits of those who apply them
      • Public Spirit in the United States
      • Notion of Rights in the United States
      • Respect for the Law in the United States
      • Activity which pervades all the Branches of the Body politic in the United States; Influence which it exercises upon Society
    • Chapter 15 – Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and its Consequences
      • How the unlimited Power of the Majority increases in America, the Instability of Legislation inherent in Democracy
      • Tyranny of the Majority
      • Effects of the unlimited Power of the Majority upon the arbitrary Authority of the American public Officers
      • Power exercised by the Majority in America upon public Opinion
      • Effects of the Tyranny of the Majority upon the national Character of the Americans
      • The greatest Dangers of the American Republics proceed from the unlimited Power of the Majority
    • Chapter 16 – Causes which Mitigate the Tyranny of the Majority in the United States
      • Absence of central Administration
      • The Profession of the Law in the United States serves to Counterpoise the Democracy
      • Trial by Jury in the United States considered as a political Institution
    • Chapter 17 – Principal Causes which tend to maintain the democratic Republic in the United States
      • Accidental or providential Causes which contribute to the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States
      • Influence of the Laws upon the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States
      • Influence of Manners upon the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States
      • Religion considered as a political Institution, which powerfully Contributes to the Maintenance of the democratic Republic among the Americans
      • Indirect Influence of religious Opinions upon political Society in the United States
      • Principal Causes which render Religion powerful in America
      • How the Instruction, the Habits, and the practical Experience of the Americans, promote the Success of their democratic Institutions
      • The Laws contribute more to the Maintenance of the democratic Republic in the United States than the physical Circumstances of the Country, and the customs more than the Laws
      • Whether Laws and Manners are sufficient to maintain democratic Institutions in other Countries beside America
      • Importance of what precedes with respect to the State of Europe
    • Chapter 18 – The present and probable future Condition of the three Races which Inhabit the Territory of the United States
      • The present and probable future Condition of the Indian Tribes which Inhabit the Territory possessed by the Union
      • Situation of the black Population in the United States, and Dangers with which its Presence threatens the Whites
      • What are the Chances in favour of the Duration of the American Union, and what Dangers threaten it
      • Of the republican Institutions of the United States, and what their Chances of Duration are
      • Reflections on the Causes of the commercial Prosperity of the United States
      • Conclusion
  • Democracy in America, Volume 2
    • Book 1 – Influence of Democracy on the Action of Intellect in the United States
      • Chapter 1 – Philosophical method among the Americans
      • Chapter 2 – Of the principal source of belief among democratic nations
      • Chapter 3 – Why the Americans display more readiness and more taste for general ideas than their forefathers the English
      • Chapter 4 – Why the Americans have never been so eager as the French for general ideas in political matters
      • Chapter 5 – Of the manner in which religion in the United States avails itself of democratic tendencies
      • Chapter 6 – Of the progress of Roman Catholicism in the United States
      • Chapter 7 – Of the cause of a leaning to Pantheism amongst democratic nations
      • Chapter 8 – The principle of equality suggests to the Americans the idea of the indefinite perfectibility of man
      • Chapter 9 – The example of the Americans does not prove that a democratic people can have no aptitude and no taste for science, literature, or art
      • Chapter 10 – Why the Americans are more addicted to practical than to theoretical science
      • Chapter 11 – Of the spirit in which the Americans cultivate the arts
      • Chapter 12 – Why the Americans raise some monuments so insignificant and others so important
      • Chapter 13 – Literary characteristics of democratic ages
      • Chapter 14 – The trade of literature
      • Chapter 15 – The study of Greek and Latin literature peculiarly useful in democratic communities
      • Chapter 16 – The effect of democracy on language
      • Chapter 17 – Of some of the sources of poetry amongst democratic nations
      • Chapter 18 – Of the inflated style of American writers and orators
      • Chapter 19 – Some observations on the Drama amongst democratic nations
      • Chapter 20 – Characteristics of historians in democratic ages
      • Chapter 21 – Of Parliamentary eloquence in the United States
    • Book 2 – Influence of Democracy on the Feelings of the Americans
      • Chapter 1 – Why democratic nations show a more ardent and enduring love of equality than of liberty
      • Chapter 2 – Of individualism in democratic communities
      • Chapter 3 – Individualism stronger at the close of a democratic revolution than at other periods
      • Chapter 4 – That the Americans combat the effects of individualism by free institutions
      • Chapter 5 – Of the use which the Americans make of public associations in civil life
      • Chapter 6 – Of the relation between public associations and newspapers
      • Chapter 7 – Connexion of civil and political associations
      • Chapter 8 – The Americans combat individualism by the principle of interest rightly understood
      • Chapter 9 – That the Americans apply the principle of interest rightly understood to religious matters
      • Chapter 10 – Of the taste for physical well-being in America
      • Chapter 11 – Peculiar effects of the love of physical gratifications in democratic ages
      • Chapter 12 – Causes of fanatical enthusiasm in some Americans
      • Chapter 13 – Causes of the restless spirit of the Americans in the midst of their prosperity
      • Chapter 14 – Taste for physical gratifications united in America to love of freedom and attention to public affairs
      • Chapter 15 – That religious belief sometimes turns the Americans to immaterial pleasures
      • Chapter 16 – That excessive care of worldly welfare may impair that welfare
      • Chapter 17 – That in times marked by equality of conditions it is important to remove to a distance the object of human actions
      • Chapter 18 – That amongst the Americans all honest callings are honourable
      • Chapter 19 – That almost all the Americans follow industrial callings
      • Chapter 20 – That aristocracy may be engendered by manufacturers
    • Book 3 – Influence of Democracy on Manners Properly So Called
      • Chapter 1 – That manners are softened as social conditions become more equal
      • Chapter 2 – That democracy renders the habitual intercourse of the Americans simple and easy
      • Chapter 3 – Why the Americans show so little sensitiveness in their own country, and are so sensitive in Europe
      • Chapter 4 – Consequences of the three preceding chapters
      • Chapter 5 – How democracy affects the relation of masters and servants
      • Chapter 6 – That democratic instititutions and manners tend to raise rents and shorten the terms of leases
      • Chapter 7 – Influence of democracy on wages
      • Chapter 8 – Influence of democracy on kindred
      • Chapter 9 – Education of young women in the United States
      • Chapter 10 – The young woman in the character of a wife
      • Chapter 11 – That the equality of conditions contributes to the maintenance of good morals in America
      • Chapter 12 – How the Americans understand the equality of the sexes
      • Chapter 13 – That the principle of equality naturally divides the Americans into a number of small private circles
      • Chapter 14 – Some reflections on American manners
      • Chapter 15 – Of the gravity of the Americans, and why it does not prevent them from often committing inconsiderate actions
      • Chapter 16 – Why the national vanity of the Americans is more restless and captious than that of the English
      • Chapter 17 – That the aspect of society in the United States is at once excited and monotonous
      • Chapter 18 – Of honour in the United States and in democratic communities
      • Chapter 19 – Why so many ambitious men, and so little lofty ambition, are to be found in the United States
      • Chapter 20 – The trade of place-hunting in certain democratic countries
      • Chapter 21 – Why great revolutions will become more rare
      • Chapter 22 – Why democratic nations are naturally desirous of peace, and democratic armies of war
      • Chapter 23 – Which is the most warlike and most revolutionary class in democratic armies
      • Chapter 24 – Causes which render democratic armies weaker than other armies at the outset of a campaign, and more formidable in protracted warfare
      • Chapter 25 – Of discipline in democratic armies
      • Chapter 26 – Some considerations on war in democratic communities
    • Book 4 – Influence of Democratic Ideas & Feelings on Political Society
      • Chapter 1 – That equality naturally gives men a taste for free institutions
      • Chapter 2 – That the notions of democratic nations on government are naturally favourable to the concentration of power
      • Chapter 3 – That the sentiments of democratic nations accord with their opinions in leading to concentrate political power
      • Chapter 4 – Of certain peculiar and accidental causes which either lead a people to complete centralization of government, or which divert them from it
      • Chapter 5 – That amongst the European governments of our time the power of governments is increasing although the persons who govern are less stable
      • Chapter 6 – What sort of despotism democratic nations have to fear
      • Chapter 7 – Continuation of the preceding chapters
      • Chapter 8 – General survey of the subject

Sojourner Truth

Mark Twain

  • The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876)
    • Chapters 1-6
    • Chapters 7-12
    • Chapters 13-18
    • Chapters 19-24
    • Chapters 25-30
    • Chapters 31-36, Conclusion

Nathaniel Ward

George Washington

Ida B. Wells

John White

Roger Williams

John Wise

Virginia Woolf


Don Pedro de Zuniga