Tacitus – The Annals, Book 2: 16-19 AD 2.1‑26 More war in Germany. During the consulship of Sisenna Statilius Taurus & Lucius Libo, there were rumblings in the east, starting with the Parthians. They had received a foreigner king from Rome whom they didn’t want. This was despite theContinue Reading

1.72‑81 Intrigues in Rome. Triumphal honors went to Aulus Caecina, Lucius Apronius & Caius Silius for their work under Germanicus. Tiberius refused the title of “Father of the Country” even though the Senate had approved it. He felt he was already in a precarious situation, it wouldn’t be good toContinue Reading

1.55‑71 The war in Germany. Germanicus had a triump decreed for him even though the war continued. He spent most of his time preparing for the summer campaign but he made moves on the Chatti in the spring. He was hoping for a divide between 2 factions, represented by ArminiusContinue Reading

Michelle & I went to Stowe which is in the north end of Buckinghamshire. It was about 50 minutes away with a good tailwind, mostly on the M40 with some side roads that were tricky going down. They claim these roads have 2 lanes… not really, though. There were quiteContinue Reading

1.31‑54 Germanicus and the mutiny of the German legions. The legions in Germany began to mutiny even more that those in Pannonia, hoping that Germanicus Caesar wouldn’t be able to deal with another’s supremacy & surrender himself to the legions. There were 2 armies on the banks of the Rhine:Continue Reading

1.16‑30 Drusus and the mutiny of the Pannonian legions At this point, a mutiny broke out in Pannonia (a region near the Danube River). The legion under Junius Blaesus had been allowed time to mourn Augustus’s death. The men began to be demoralized, quarreled, & craved luxury & idleness. AContinue Reading

Tacitus – The Annals, Book 1: 14-15 A.D.   1.1‑15 Death and funeral of Augustus; accession of Tiberius Rome had been ruled by kings. Lucius Brutus established the consulship. There were periodic dictatorships due to crises. The decemvirs ruled for 2 years & the the consular military tribunes were short-lived.Continue Reading

Hecabe by Euripides   Setting: In front of Agamemnon’s tent on the shores of Thrace. Characters: Ghost of Polydorus, Hecabe, Polyxena, Odysseus, Talthybius, Agamemnon, Polymestor, Attendant, Chorus   Ghost: I’m Polydorus, son of Hecabe & Priam. My father sent me away when the Greeks came. I went to Thrace whereContinue Reading

  The Gospel According to John from The New Testament of the Bible Chapter 1 The Word Became Flesh In the beginning was the word. The word was God. All things were made through him. He was the light of all mankind & no darkness could overcome it. God sentContinue Reading

  Epictetus – Discourses Book 2 Chapter 1 – That confidence is not inconsistent with caution The opinion of philosophers may be a paradox. It is possible to do everything with both caution & confidence. It appears that these things can’t be combined. But if they can, how? Philosopher sayContinue Reading

Medea by Euripides Characters: Nurse, Tutor, Medea, Chorus of Corinthian Women, Creon (king of Corinth), Jason, Aegeus (king of Athens), Messenger, Medea’s 2 children Scene: in front of Jason’s house in Corinth Nurse: If only the Argo had never gone to Colchis. If only the boat had never been built.Continue Reading

Epictetus – Discourses Book 1 Chapter 1 – Of the things which are in our power & not in our power. There’s only one faculty able to contemplate itself & either approve or disapprove. Grammar tells you what words to use but it doesn’t tell you whether you should writeContinue Reading

“The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 4 – Beginning & End Chapter 15 – Men of Words (104-109) 104 – Mass movements don’t usually rise until the prevailing order has been discredited. Discrediting is not automatically the result of blunders & abuse of those in power butContinue Reading

“The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 3 – Factors Promoting Self-Sacrifice Chapter 12 – Preface (43) 43 – The vigor of mass movements comes from followers’ united action & self-sacrifice. We ascribe success of a movement to faith, doctrine, propaganda, etc. but it’s really unification & inculcationContinue Reading

  “The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 2 – The Potential Converts Chapter 4 – The Role of the Undesirables in Human Affairs (18-19) 18 – Often a society is judged by its least worthy members, fairly or unfairly. The middle class is typically inert. Those whoContinue Reading

“The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 1 – The Appeal of Mass Movements Preface The book deals with commonalities of mass movements, be they religious, social or national. They aren’t identical but have very similar traits. Adherents have a readiness to die & proclivity for united action.Continue Reading

Thomas Paine – African Slavery in America (1775) It’s more depressing than bizarre that some people would be willing to steal & enslave men by violence & murder for gain. Many civilized & Christian people approve this savage practice is contrary to nature, principles of justice & humanity, as wellContinue Reading

Ecclesiastes from the Old Testament of the Bible Chapter 1 Everything is Meaningless Everything is meaningless says the teacher (Solomon?). You work all day under the sun & what do you get? Generations come & go but the earth remains forever. The sun rises & sets, only to rise again.Continue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 16 – Conclusion The point of the book wasn’t to be a guide for a desirable future order of society. If it did so in the chapter on international affairs, it’s because that is necessary for the rest to happen. It’sContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 15 – The Prospects of International Order The world was paid the most for the abandonment of liberalism in the field of international relations. We’re starting to see that economic planning has an aggregate harmful effect in producing international friction. There’sContinue Reading