The Gospel According to John from The New Testament of the Bible Chapter 1 The Word Became Flesh In the beginning was the word. The word was God. All things were made through him. He was the light of all mankind & no darkness could overcome it. God sentContinue Reading

  Epictetus – Discourses Book 2 Chapter 1 – That confidence is not inconsistent with caution The opinion of philosophers may be a paradox. It is possible to do everything with both caution & confidence. It appears that these things can’t be combined. But if they can, how? Philosopher sayContinue Reading

Medea by Euripides Characters: Nurse, Tutor, Medea, Chorus of Corinthian Women, Creon (king of Corinth), Jason, Aegeus (king of Athens), Messenger, Medea’s 2 children Scene: in front of Jason’s house in Corinth Nurse: If only the Argo had never gone to Colchis. If only the boat had never been built.Continue Reading

Epictetus – Discourses Book 1 Chapter 1 – Of the things which are in our power & not in our power. There’s only one faculty able to contemplate itself & either approve or disapprove. Grammar tells you what words to use but it doesn’t tell you whether you should writeContinue Reading

“The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 4 – Beginning & End Chapter 15 – Men of Words (104-109) 104 – Mass movements don’t usually rise until the prevailing order has been discredited. Discrediting is not automatically the result of blunders & abuse of those in power butContinue Reading

“The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 3 – Factors Promoting Self-Sacrifice Chapter 12 – Preface (43) 43 – The vigor of mass movements comes from followers’ united action & self-sacrifice. We ascribe success of a movement to faith, doctrine, propaganda, etc. but it’s really unification & inculcationContinue Reading

  “The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 2 – The Potential Converts Chapter 4 – The Role of the Undesirables in Human Affairs (18-19) 18 – Often a society is judged by its least worth members, fairly or unfairly. The middle class is typically inert. Those whoContinue Reading

“The True Believer” by Eric Hoffer (1951) – Part 1 – The Appeal of Mass Movements Preface The book deals with commonalities of mass movements, be they religious, social or national. They aren’t identical but have very similar traits. Adherents have a readiness to die & proclivity for united action.Continue Reading

Thomas Paine – African Slavery in America (1775) It’s more depressing than bizarre that some people would be willing to steal & enslave men by violence & murder for gain. Many civilized & Christian people approve this savage practice is contrary to nature, principles of justice & humanity, as wellContinue Reading

Ecclesiastes from the Old Testament of the Bible Chapter 1 Everything is Meaningless Everything is meaningless says the teacher (Solomon?). You work all day under the sun & what do you get? Generations come & go but the earth remains forever. The sun rises & sets, only to rise again.Continue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 16 – Conclusion The point of the book wasn’t to be a guide for a desirable future order of society. If it did so in the chapter on international affairs, it’s because that is necessary for the rest to happen. It’sContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 15 – The Prospects of International Order The world was paid the most for the abandonment of liberalism in the field of international relations. We’re starting to see that economic planning has an aggregate harmful effect in producing international friction. There’sContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 14 – Material Conditions & Ideal Ends Our generation attaches less weight to economic matters than previous ones. The “End of Economic Man” is becoming one of the governing myths of our time. Before accepting that phrase, let’s examine it. WhenContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 13 – The Totalitarians in Our Midst The magnitude of the terrible things done by totalitarian governments makes it more assured it can’t happen here. When we look at Nazi Germany, it seems very different & that makes us think thatContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 12 – The Socialist Roots of Nazism It’s a mistake to see Nazism as just a revolt against reason & a movement without intellectual background. Its doctrines are the culmination of a long evolution of thought from beyond the confines ofContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 11 – The End of Truth The most effective way to make everyone serve the single system is to make everyone believe in the same ends. To make a totalitarian system function efficiently, you can’t just make everyone work for theContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 10 – Why the Worst Get on Top Some people believe that the worst parts of totalitarian regimes are due to the fact that it was only by accident that they were established by groups of criminals & thugs. Why shouldn’tContinue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 9 – Security & Freedom “Economic Security” is often represented as a necessary condition of real liberty. Independence of mind is rarely found in those with no confidence of being able to survive on their own. But the term “economic security”Continue Reading

“The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 8 – Who, Whom? A common complaint about competition is that it’s blind, even though justice has historically been portrayed as blind. It’s important that we not know who will succeed either through luck or skill & not based on someone’sContinue Reading

The Road to Serfdom (1944) – F.A. Hayek, Chapter 7 – Economic Control & Totalitarianism Most planners don’t doubt a planned economy must be run as a dictatorship. A complex system of interrelated activities must be a single staff of experts & ultimate power must be in the hands ofContinue Reading